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AS PE Growth, Maturation and Effects of Ageing
Transcript of AS PE Growth, Maturation and Effects of Ageing
To understand the point of physical maturation.
the increase in overall body size with changes in muscle, bone and fat. This affects motor skills.
Growth is complicated because:
different parts of the body grow at different rates
periods of growth start and stop at different times
Reaching a Peak
For the following sports/physical activities, suggest an age range at which performers reach their peak.
Uneven growth and maturation amongst children and young people mean than chronological age is a very poor method of determining the development of a young person
This provides challenges in three main areas.
Opportunities, Training and Competition
Combatting the effects of ageing through a healthy lifestyle
Use the previous headings to describe how exercise can reduce the effects and risks associated with ageing
To be able to explain how and why this differs between sports
To analyse the decline in sport performance associated with ageing
Maturation is the genetically programmed series of changes leading to maturity.
These changes occur in the same sequence in everybody, but there are great individual differences in:
when puberty starts;
how long it takes (it can be 18 months to 5 years)
how much growth occurs in the adolescent growth spurt.
The growth spurt in height (PHV) happens first and is followed by the growth spurt in weight and then the growth spurt in strength.
Australian Sports Commission
identify the reasons for the different ages you gave.
In youth sport, can you think of any problems with grouping children by age?
"Athletes of the same chronological age can vary by as much as 5 biological years. Therefore, with two 11-year-old swimmers, one may be 10 and the other 15, biologically."
Therefore sport providers must:
young people differ from adults in the quality of their tissues and are not able to take the same stresses
Competition is an important part of sport because it provides challenge in applying, testing and developing skills.
Physical Growth and Maturation: Junior Sport Framework, Australian Sport Commission
A Young Athlete's Growth and Development, USA Swimming
The Effects of Ageing
Girls vs Boys
be aware that late maturing young people may be disadvantaged when competitions are based on chronological age
encourage young people despite their current body shape as this may be different later on.
organise activities so young people have positive experiences regardless of their developmental status.
Young people and their parents/carers should focus on personal improvement, and not comparison with others of the same age.
Opportunities (e.g. being selected to participate) may not be offered to some young people because of their current developmental status.
Training must be conducted differently for young people particularly if they are specialising and involved in a narrow range of activities
For example, it takes considerable time for a bone that has lengthened to become strong, and for the muscles, tendons and ligaments to grow to the new length of the bone.
The most common problem is soft tissue injuries (muscles, ligaments and tendons) due to trauma or overuse.
Rare problems include the risk of fractures particularly during the growth spurt when bones are lengthening and are relatively porous and injuries to the growth plate of bones caused by high contact forces or repetitive loading in some sports.
One area of increasing concern is low bone density in adolescent girls in sports requiring leanness at the elite level
The high energy expenditure of intense training accompanied by restricted food intake can lead to menstrual dysfunction and precipitate bone loss.
This in turn increases the risk of stress fractures in the short term; and osteoporosis in later life. Healthy eating with sufﬁcient energy for training is important to prevent a negative impact on growth and maturation
Therefore coaching should be...
...designed to consider the emotional, social, and psychological maturation of the young person - not just their physiological maturation
...aware of other physical activities undertaken by other young people
...adjusted on an ongoing and progressive basis to match their maturation levels
Handicapping can allow the participation in open competition of young people with disabilities, or who are smaller/not as strong as others.
Ideally, competition groupings should be based on criteria other than age
Variation in physical aspects such as height, weight and strength results in the risk of injury and psychological distress when young people are unevenly matched.
Focus on personal improvement
not comparison against others
resting metabolic rate
Decline in MHR, stroke volume and cardiac output
Decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)
Muscle reduces in size and function (atrophy) giving reduction in strength with age
Tendon and Ligament strength and elasticity is lost leading to joint instability. This can lead to dislocations.
Resting Metabolic Rate
over 50s require 10-20% fewer calories
Reduction of bone mass due to re-absorption of minerals out of the bone structure.
[Max HR = (220 - age in years)]
This classic equation implies a maximum of about 155 beats.min-1 at age 65 years.
Recent research suggests that a well-motivated 65-year-old can attain a rate of 170 beats.
Increasing resting HR
Artery hardening (arteriosclerosis) increases resting systolic BP
HR recovery after exercise is slower
Loss of approx 10% per decade due to reduced SV and Max HR
Lung vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume decreases with age
Residual volume increases with each breath, so less oxygen is exchanged per breath
Elasticity of alveoli walls and reduced strength of respiratory muscles also decreases VO2 max
Arterio-venous oxygen difference reduces since less oxygen is extracted by muscles
Max anaerobic power begins to decrease after age 25. Body shifts towards slow twitch fibres.
Loss of coordination due to loss of neurones
Elasticity and tension of muscle tissue reduces leading to postural difficulties such as kyphosis
Skin elasticity is lost leading to flabbines
Joint damage from earlier years can develop into osteoarthritis
Bone become more porous and brittle, when they are not placed under stress (i.e. through exercise)
particularly common in post-menopausal women and the inactive
BMR declines with age