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Psychology AS Revision lesson 2

Stress, Social influence and psychopathology (abnormality)
by

Amanda Lane

on 13 May 2015

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Transcript of Psychology AS Revision lesson 2

AS Psychology revision
Stress, Social influence, Psychopathology
Stress!
There are 2 ways in which the body responds to stress....
Pituitary-Adrenal pathway
Sympathomedullary pathway
The pituitary-adrenal pathway
Involves the adrenal cortex
Body is prepared for action!
Cortisol is released
ACTH travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal cortex
CRF is released to activate the pituitary gland to release ACTH
Controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
What happens next?
Feedback!
Once CRF and ACTH go above normal levels, the pituitary gland & Hypothalamus reduce the levels which brings down the levels of cortisol and the body returns to normal
Sympathomedullary pathway
Hypothalamus activates the ANS
Parasympathetic pathway returns the body back to normal
SNS releases Noradrenaline and adrenaline from the adrenal medulla
ANS divides into SNS (and parasympathetic pathway) which prepares the body for 'Fight or Flight'.
Which pathway is responsible for chronic, and which for acute stress responses?
Chronic = PA
Acute = SM
Phase 3
Phase 1
Phase 2
ALARM
RESISTANCE
EXHAUSTION
Stress-response, systems activated
Body copes with stress
Stress related illness develop
The short term effects of stress
Who's model is this and what is it called?
Selye (1956)
General adaptation syndrome (GAS)
Stress and the immune system...
Kiecolt-glaser
Blood from nurses
Married couples and wound healing
Marucha
Cheek biopsy
Malarky
Newly-wed couples
Life changes and illness
SRRS (Social Readjustment Rating Scale)
(Holmes and Rahe 1967)
Daily Hassles
Lazarus (1990) daily hassle more problematic
Gervais (2005) Daily hassles and uplifts (nurses)
Accumulation of daily hassles (Ruffin 1993)

Amplification of daily hassles as a result of life changes.
Stress and CHD
CHD and type A personalities - (Friedman & Rosenman 1974) Other lifestyle factors not considered
Hardiness
Kobasa (1977) - Study only conducted on white, middle class males
Hardiness
Control
Commitment
Challenge
Kirkaldy et al (2002)
Discovered links between locus of control, stress and health implications
What are the 2 types of LOC and what are the differences?
What are the 2 coping mechanisms of stress?
Rukholm & Viverais (1993) suggest that people can successfully use both
Folkman & Lazarus (1985) suggest that different scenarios require different coping strategies (Exams)
Psychological methods of stress management
CBT
SIT
Hardiness Training
Systematic desensitisation
Drugs (physiological)
Benzodiazepines
Beta-blockers
Evaluation
Effectiveness
Ease of use
Addiction
Side effects
Treats symptoms not cause
Social Influence
Types of conformity
Compliance
Identification
Internalisation
Public conformity, maintaining private views
Conforming both publicly and privately but not permanently
Total permanent conversion of views both publicly and privately
Why do people conform?
Normative social influence
Informational social influence
What is the definition of the 2 forms of social influence?
ASCH (1951)
Majority Influence
non-unanimous majority
Size of majority
Losing a partner
Gaining a partner
Difficulty of task
Zimbardo (1973)
Conforming to social roles
Unethical study
Proves normative social influence
People behave differently in new situations
Obedience to authority
My Lai massacre
Milgram (1963)
What were the ethical implications of Milgram's experiment?
Why do people obey?
Legitimate authority
Gradual commitment
Contractual Obligation
Altered meaning
The agentic shift
Buffers
Personality factors
Independent behaviour - resisting conformity
Desire to be individual
Desire to be in control
Prior commitment
Time to think & seek support
Resisting pressures to obey authority
Feeling responsibility and empathy
Disobedient others
Questioning motives
Time to discuss
People feel that their freedom is threatened
Individual differences on independent behaviour
Moral Reasoning
Locus of control
Confidence
Gender differences
Social Change and minority influence
Consistency
Group membership
Social Cryptoamnesia
Snowball effect
We are more influenced by people like us
The more people agree with the minority the more will follow
People don't remember where the negative sources of a minority view point originated.
Consistent agreement and belief in an idea
Psychopathology
(Abnormality)

Definitions of abnormality
Deviation from social norms
Deviation from ideal mental health
Failure to function adequately
Deviation from social norms
Eccentric or abnormal?
Abnormal or criminal?
Context
Changing times
Labelling
Cultural Issues
Failure to function adequately
Not the whole picture
Exceptions to the rule
Not necessarily indicative of a mental illness
Deviation from ideal mental health
Jahoda's six criteria
Not all of us achieve our full potential in life
Stress can be beneficial
Jahoda based on western ideals
Biological approach
Brain damage
Infection
Neurotransmitter imbalance
Genes

No blame
Stigma
Passive patients
Research
Reductionist

Psychodynamics
Freud
Id
Ego
Superego

Little Hans (1909)
Ego defence mechanisms
Repression
Projection
Denial
Regression
Displacement
Sublimation
Influential
Untestable
Retrospective
Deterministic
sexist

Behavioural approach
Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Social learning

Cognitive approach
Irrational thinking
Errors in processing

Treating abnormality
Biological
Drugs
ECT
Psychosurgery
Psychoanalysis (Freud)
Dream analysis
Free association
Transference
Psychological
SD
CBT
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