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Growth And Development: Preschoolers
Transcript of Growth And Development: Preschoolers
Leading cause of death in Canadian children is
Nurse's need to educate parents
Parents need to educate children
Begin to lose teeth
Improved coordination & balance
Develop new skills (gross & fine motor skills)
Lawrence Kohlberg 1968
Stage one of the preconventional level
follows rules to prevent punishments
Lauren Kinnear, Laura Heeg, Sara Ibrahim, Sandip Deol
Health Concerns: Nutrition
More likely to be obese as an adult
High blood glucose (sugar) or diabetes
High blood pressure
High blood cholesterol and triglycerides
Heart attacks, congestive heart failure, and stokes later in life
Bone and joint problems
obese girls are more likely to not have regular menstrual periods
obese children often have low-self esteem
Health Concerns: Vision
Signs of eye & vision problems:
sitting too close to TV
holding book to close
tilting their head
frequently rubbing their eyes
short attention span for the child's age
turning of an eye in or out
sensitivity to light
difficulty with eye-hand-body coordination
avoiding colouring activities, puzzles, etc.
difficulty recognizing colours, shapes, letters, and numbers
Jean Piaget 1951
Rebuilding sensory motor stage
No conservation of quantity
Imitation and make belief play
The Phallic Stage
Castration Anxiety vs Electra Complex
Erik Erikson 1959
Initiative vs Guilt
Foster a Relaxing Environment
• Involves children aged 3-5
• Refine the mastery of their bodies
• Often begin school
• The most “intriguing” years of parenting
“The Preschool Period”
Use simple vocabulary; avoid lengthy explanation
Focus on the present
Ex. “Mommy will be back after you eat your lunch”, instead of saying 1 o’clock
Maintain eye contact
Speak slowly and clearly
Preschoolers cannot make distinctions between fantasy and reality
Assign the same caregiver & have them follow a schedule
Post family pictures
Allow the child to initiate relationship
Use brief and concise explanations
Be quick to complete the procedure
Allow child to have some control when making choice
Ex. Would you like the blue or the red medicine?
Use imagination when educating:
Examples: Puppetry, doll, and drama with dress-ups, music, drawings, and story telling
Eliminate misunderstanding of the child's illness through playful language
Allow the child to explore equipment
Support through praise, approval and encouragement
Ex. "Let's take the heart beat of the teddy bear"
Introduction (2 Min)
Description of the developmental stage (6 Min)
Health risks and concerns for preschoolers (6 Min)
Description of growth and development theorists in relation to pre-school age children(7 Min)
Principles of communication and strategies (7 Min)
Group Discussion (5 Min)
(Canadian Pediatric Society, 2012)
(American Optometric Association, n.d.)
Establishing relationships & environments
Initiative & guilt
Definite personality traits
Interest in sexuality
Shift between demanding & cooperative
Wishing vs. receiving
Importance of play
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
(Raising Children Network, 2014)
(Human Services, 2001)
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
Strategies of Communication
Patience in answering questions
Encouraging them to explore, experiment and try new things
(Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, 2013)
(Arnold & Bogs, 2011) (Hatfield & Broadribb, 2008)
(Arnold and Boggs, 2011)
(Hatfield & Broadribb, 2008)
American Optometric Association. (n.d.). Preschool vision: 2-5 years of age. Retrieved October,
28, 2014 from http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/good-vision-throughout-life/childrens-
Arnold, E., & Boggs, K. U. (2011). Interpersonal relationships: Professional communication skills
for nurses (6th ed.). St. Louis, Mo. ; London: Elsevier Saunders.
Borke,H., (1975). Piaget's mountains revisited: Changes in the egocentric landscape.
Developmental Psychology, 11(2), 240-243. doi:10.1037/h0076459
Canadian pediatric society. (2012). Child and youth injury prevention: A public health approach.
Retrieved from http://www.cps.ca/documents/position/child-and-youth-injury-prevention
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. (2013). Preschoolers (3-5 years).
Retrieved October 27, 2014, from http://www.education.vic.gov.au/childhood/parents/health/
Dymond, C. (2014). How play can help your preschooler develop. Retrieved October 27, 2014,
Hatfield, N. T. & Broadribb, V.(2008). Broadribb's introductory pediatric nursing (7th ed.).
Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Human Services. (2001). Your child’s health and development birth to 6 years. Retrieved
November 2, 2014, from http://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/childhood/parents/
Kaneshiro, N. K. (2013). Obesity in children. Retrieved October, 28, 2014 from http://
Kohlberg, L. (1968, September 1). Kohlberg's "The Child as Moral Philosopher" Retrieved
November 1, 2014, from http://www.indiana.edu/~koertge/Sem104/Kohlb
McLeod, S. (2008, January 1). Erik Erikson | Psychosocial Stages | Simply Psychology. Retrieved
November 1, 2014, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
Piaget, J. (1964). Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2(3), 176-186. doi:10.1002/tea.3660020306
Potter, P. A. & Perry, A.G. (2014). Canadian fundamentals of nursing (5th ed.). J.C. Ross-Kerr,
M.J. Wood, B.J. Astle, & W. Duggleby (Eds.). Toronto, ON: Elsevier Canada.
Preschoolers (3-5 years). (2013, September 28). Department of Education and Early Childhood
Development. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from http://www.education.vic.gov.au/childhood/
Raising Children Network. (2013). 4-5 years: preschooler development. Retrieved October 27,
2014, from http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/child_development_four_to_five_years.html/
Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario. (2006).
Establishing therapeutic relationships.
Retrieved on November, 6, 2014, from http://rnao.ca/sites/rnao-ca/files/
(Stockert & Hall, 2006)
(Potter & Perry, 2014)
(Freud, 1957, Phallic Stage)
Sigmund Freud 1957
(McLeod, 2008, Initiative vs Guilt)
(as cited in Pottery, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2004, p. 318)
(Kohlberg, 1968, Preconventional Level)
"...a purposeful, goal directed relationship that is directed at advancing the best interest and outcome of the client" (Registered Nurses Association of Ontario, 2006, p. 13)
A therapeutic relationship is vital to the nursing profession when interacting with preschoolers
(Registered Nurses Association of Ontario, 2006)