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Copy of title

Learning Theories Overview

David Killick

on 22 November 2013

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Theories of Learning
Link to full text of original paper from Maslow http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm
Three dimensions
of learning
Image by Sean MacEntee, flikr open commons
Bloom's Taxonomy revisited source: Jutecht flickr
Bloom's Taxonomy as a wheel. Source: cstep.csumb.edu/Obj_tutorial/bloomwheel3.gif
Includes categories (purple), key words (orange) and suggested activities (blue/green).
Summary of proposed levels within the psychomotor domain of learning :
1. Perception: Using sensory cues to guide motor activity.
2. Mental, physical, and emotional sets. Dispositions or mindsets which predetermine how someone response to different situations.
3. Guided Response: Includes imitation and trial & error.
4. Mechanism: Learned responses are habitual and movements are carried out with some confidence/proficiency.
5. Complex Overt Response: Skillful performance of acts involving complex movement patterns.
6. Adaptation: Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements.
7. Origination: Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem.
Links & References

Harrow, A.J. (1972) A Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain New York:
Dave, R.H. (1970). Psychomotor levels. In RJ. Armstrong (Ed.) Developing and writing educational objectives (pp. 33-34). Tucson AZ: Educational Innovators Press.
Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1964). Taxonomy of educational objectives; the classification of educational goals. Handbook II: The affective domain. New York: Longman, Green.
Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals; Handbook I: Cognitive Domain New York, Longman, Green, 1956.
L. W. Anderson, D. R. Krathwohl, Peter W. Airasian, Kathleen A. Cruikshank, Richard E. Mayer, Paul R. Pintrich, James Raths, and Merlin C. Wittrock (eds) (2000) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Allyn and Bacon
The affective domain is concerned with people's emotional reactions and their abilities to feel another’s pain or joy. Learning is associated with awareness and growth in attitudes and feelings. The five levels of the affective domain:
1. Receiving: pays passive attention.
2. Responding: participates actively in the learning process, reacts in some way.
3. Valuing: attaches a value to what is being learned.
4. Organizing: puts together different values, information, and ideas and accommodates them within own schema.
5. Characterizing: holds a value or belief which exerts influence on him/herself.
Schemes (schema)
Behaviourism, Cognitivism & Constructivism
Learning Dimensions/Domains
Zone of proximal development
Piaget, J. (1937/1954). The construction of reality in the child. New York: Basic Books
Source: Freephoto.com Ref Number: 13-44-54.
Photographer: Ian Britton
Basic Definition
"Learning is...."

Change to the lifeworld
Some of the field
Adult Learning Theory (P. Cross) Algo-Heuristic Theory (L. Landa) Andragogy (M. Knowles) Anchored Instruction (J. Bransford & the CTGV) Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (L. Cronbach & R. Snow) Attribution Theory (B. Weiner) Cognitive Dissonance Theory (L. Festinger) Cognitive Flexibility Theory (R. Spiro) Cognitive Load Theory (J. Sweller) Component Display Theory (M.D. Merrill) Conditions of Learning (R. Gagne) Connectionism (E. Thorndike) Constructivist Theory (J. Bruner) Contiguity Theory (E. Guthrie) Conversation Theory (G. Pask) Criterion Referenced Instruction (R. Mager) Double Loop Learning (C. Argyris) Drive Reduction Theory (C. Hull) Dual Coding Theory (A. Paivio) Elaboration Theory (C. Reigeluth) Experiential Learning (C. Rogers) Functional Context Theory (T. Sticht) Genetic Epistemology (J. Piaget) Gestalt Theory (M. Wertheimer) GOMS (Card, Moran & Newell) GPS (A. Newell & H. Simon) Information Pickup Theory (J.J. Gibson) Information Processing Theory (G.A. Miller) Lateral Thinking (E. DeBono) Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart) Mathematical Learning Theory (R.C. Atkinson) Mathematical Problem Solving (A. Schoenfeld) Minimalism (J. M. Carroll) Model Centered Instruction and Design Layering (A.Gibbons) Modes of Learning (D. Rumelhart & D. Norman) Multiple Intelligences (H. Gardner) Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner) Originality (I. Maltzman) Phenomenonography (F. Marton & N. Entwistle) Repair Theory (K. VanLehn) Script Theory (R. Schank) Sign Theory (E. Tolman) Situated Learning (J. Lave) Soar (A. Newell et al.) Social Development (L. Vygotsky) Social Learning Theory (A. Bandura) Stimulus Sampling Theory (W. Estes) Structural Learning Theory (J. Scandura) Structure of Intellect (J. Guilford) Subsumption Theory (D. Ausubel) Symbol Systems (G. Salomon) Triarchic Theory (R. Sternberg) Transformational Theory (J. Mezirow)
Bruner - categorization: "To perceive is to categorize, to conceptualize is to categorize, to learn is to form categories, to make decisions is to categorize."

Cognitivism - with a model of the mind as "information processor," left no room for mind as a creator of meanings. Need to focus on the interactions through which mind constitutes and is constituted by culture, society, experience.
Theories of "Teaching"
Conditions for Learning
Image source: Nurnua flickr COPs
Image: Ute Kraus, Institute of Physics, Universität Hildesheim, Space Time Travel (http://www.spacetimetravel.org/)
Legitimate peripheral participation
Big and....
... small
Mezirow -
Transformative Learning Theory
Types of knowledge
Transformative learning takes place through a process of perspective transformation (could be considered a change in META schema). It is triggered by a disorienting dilemma, or over time through accumulated change in several meaning schemes. It requires cognitive awareness and consciously directed/activated learning. Learners must change their frames of reference by critically reflection on their knowledge & beliefs and consciously redefining their worlds.

Perspective transformation involves changes in:
• my self understanding
• my belief systems
• my lifestyle
Humanistic Approaches
Carl Rodgers
“A person cannot teach another person directly; a person can only facilitate another's learning” (Rogers, 1951).
Carl Rogers (1951)
“Experience which, if assimilated, would involve a change in the organization of self, tends to be resisted through denial or distortion of symbolism”. AND “The structure and organization of self appears to become more rigid under threats and to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat”.
• SO openness to at least consider other perspectives, new concepts, things which do not fit with existing schema is vital to learning. But such openness requires confidence, a safe environment, etc. to remove any feelings of vulnerability.

“A person learns significantly only those things that are perceived as being involved in the maintenance of or enhancement of the structure of self”.
• SO course must be relevant to the student & the students' experience must be seen as relevant to the course.

“The educational situation which most effectively promotes significant learning is one in which (a) threat to the self of the learner is reduced to a minimum and (b) differentiated perception of the field is facilitated” (Rogers, 1951).
• SO the facilitator/teacher must be open to learning from students – taking the role of being a mentor/guides not “the expert”.
(Cf Paulo Freire 1970/2007
"banking education"
Freire, Paulo. (1970/2007) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum
Bruner, J. (1960). The Process of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Rogers, C.R. (1969). Freedom to Learn. Columbus, OH: Merrill
John Dewey
Experiential Learning

DEWEY, J. (1938/1963) Experience and Education, New York, NY, Collier Books.
DALE, E. (1969) Audiovisual Methods in Teaching, 3rd.New York, NY, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
WENGER, E. (1998) Communities of Practice: Meaning, and Identity, Cambridge, Mass, Cambridge University Press.
Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
But how about... behavioural learning as a PROCESS?
But how about... the influence of affect on the learning process?
Picture source: TheBigTouffe Crowd. Flickr
Source: David Armano Social Systems. Flickr
BRUNER, J. 1966. Towards a theory of instruction, Harvard, MS, Harvard University Press.
MEZIROW, J. 1991. Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
MEZIROW, J. & ASSOCIATES (eds.) 2000. Learning as Transformation: critical perspectives on a theory in progress, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
VYGOTSKY, L. S. 1978. Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
A representation of Piaget's genetic epistemology showing the organism as the source of development
Source: The Depth of the Exteriors: Part 2: Piaget, Vygotsky, Harre and the Social Mediation by Mark Edwards
A representation of Vygotsky's cultural mediation showing the presence of developmental depth in all organism-society interactions
Source: The Depth of the Exteriors: Part 2: Piaget, Vygotsky, Harre and the Social Mediation by Mark Edwards
JARVIS, P. 2006. Towards a Comprehensive Theory of Human Learning. Lifelong Learning and the Learning Society, London, Routledge.
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