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The ways in which ICT is used1.

Capitulo 7. Belgrano
by

Pablo Parente

on 31 August 2012

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Transcript of The ways in which ICT is used1.

The ways in which ICT is used. 2. Satellite and mobile network communications. 1. Comunnication applications 13. Expert systems. 12. Library systems 10. Online booking systems. 9. Automatic stock control system. 5. Types of processing 4. Modelling applications 3. Data handling applications. 8. Batch proccessing applications 7. Robotics 6. Control applications Introduction This chapter looks at how ICT is used in everyday life and discusses the many advantages and drawbacks of using computer systems to replace or enhance applications which were previously paper or manually based. There are several communication applications that make use of ICT technology. They are divided in two categories Methods of communication Ways of communication Video conferencing
Voice over internet protocol (VOIP) systems
Emails Multimedia presentations
Printing flyers and posters
Use of websites
Music productions
Cartoon animations Multimedia presentations Presentations using animation, video and sound/music are generally much more interesting than a presentation done on slides of paper. The presentations are produced using one of the many software packages on the market and then used with a multimedia projector so that the whole audience is able to see the presentation Advantages the use of sound and animation/video effects
interactive/hyperlinks built into the presentation
the fact that it is more likely to hold the audience's attention Disadvantages the need to have special equipment, which can be expensive
sometimes the requirement for internet access within the presentation Paper-based presentations It is always possible to produce presentations in a hardcopy format rather than the system described above. Advantages Disabled people do not have to go to the venue to see the presentation.
It is possible to print out in Braille for the benefit of blind people.
The recipient can read the presentation at any time they want.
The recipients have a permanent copy, which they can refer to at any time they want. Disadvantages The presentation needs to be distributed in some way.
There are no special effects (sound, video, animations).
There are printing costs (paper, ink, etc.). Flyers and posters Flyers and posters can be produced very easily using one of the many software packages available, most commonly word processors and desktop publishers (DTP). Usually, the flyer or poster will have photos which have been taken specially or have been downloaded from the internet. How such a document would be produced on a computer system: A word processor or DTP application is opened.
The user creates frames, boxes, and text boxes.
If necessary, photos are taken, using a camera.
The images are uploaded from the camera, loaded from a CD/DVD, scanned from hard-copy photos or downloaded from the internet.
The photos are saved to a file.
The photos are imported or copied and pasted into the document.
The photos are edited and text typed in or imported from a file and then put into the required style. Websites Rather than producing flyers and posters by printing them out, it is possible to use websites for advertising and communication Advantages The ability to add sound/video/animation
Links to other websites/hyperlinks
The use of hot spots
Buttons to navigate/move around the website
Hit counters to see who has visited the websites Disadvantages The fact that websites can be hacked into and modified or viruses introduced
The need for a computer and internet connection
Its lack of portability compared with a paper-based system
The need to maintain the website once it is set up Music Production The generation of music and the production of music scores can now be done by ocmputer systems with the appropiate software, for example:
music samplers and mixers allow the original tracks that were recorded in the studio to be modified in any way that the producer wants
electronic instruments can play back through electronic effects machines
synthesisers combine simple wave forms to produce complex music creations
electronic organs can mimic any other instrument Cartoon animations Animation can be produced using computer hardware and software. With 3D animation, objects are designed on a computer and a 3D skeleton produced. The parts of the skeleton are moved by the animator using any frames (these frames define the start point and end point to give a smooth animation effect). The difference in the appearance of the skeleton in these key frames is automatically calculated by the software and is known as tweening or morphing. The final stage is to make a realistic image by a technique known as rendering. This section considers three applications which make use of satellite technology and/or mobile phone network technology:
mobile phone networks
embedded web technology (EWT)
global positioning satellite systems (GPS) Mobile phone networks Mobile phones communicate by using towers inside many cells networked together to cover large areas. The towers allow the transmission of data throughout the mobile phone network.
Each tower transmits within its own cell.
Mobile phone technology can now be used by computers. Embedded web technology This is a relatively new development that uses the internet in real time to control or interact with a device in the home or a device which is part of an industrial application. It must contain an embedded microprocessor for this system to work.
The device can be controlled by an authorized user from a computer anywhere on a network or from a web-enabled mobile phone. Global positioning satellite (GPS) systems Global positioning satellite systems are used to determine the exact location of a number of modes of transport.
Satellites surrounding the Earth transmits signals to the surface. Computers installed in the mode of transport receive and interpret these signals. Knowing their positions on the Earth depends on very accurate timing. Each satellite transmits data indicating its position and time. Advantages The driver does not have to consult paper maps while driving
It removes errors, as it can warn drivers about one way streets, street closures, etc.
The system can warn the driver about the location of speed cameras
The system can estimate the time of arrival Disadvantages If the maps are not kept up to date, they can give incorrect instructions.
Unless the system is sophisticated, road closures, due to accidents, can cause problems
Loss of satellite signals can cause problems
If an incorrect start point or end point is keyed in, the system will give incorrect information A number of applications make use of simple data handling techniques:
surveys
tuck shop records
club and society records
record keeping Surveys Surveys are used to find out information within customers. They will be either handed out to people or posted on a website to allow them to be filled in online. Online questionnaires would tend to use the first option since this is a quick and easy method for gathering data. Paper surveys are then scanned in using optical mark recognition or optical character recognition methods and the information is transferred to a database.
Advantages:
it is faster to get results
there are fewer errors
it is easier to do a statistical analysis
it is less expensive to carry out, since it needs fewer people Tuck Shop records Simple financial applications such as these use spreadsheets to keep a record of prices and takings. The advantage is that it is much easier to vary different parameters to show how to optimise profits or to see why a loss is being made. The system can be programmed to automatically warn of any problems. There are several applications that make use of batch processing, the most common ones are payroll,billing and cheque processing. Payroll At the end of each pay period a company needs to pay its employees.In this case,payrolls systems are used to calculate wages and print pay out pay slips.Considering the payroll system of a company: inputs are: employee details from file (bank details),number of hours worked,any overtime working,holidays,etc.
the processing done is calculation of: gross pay,any deductions(tax,national insurance),net pay,etc.
outputs are:printed pay slips,updating of the employee file,transfer to Bankers Automated Clearing Service(BACS) if wages payed into a bank account,etc. Billing Systems As companies send out their bills on a pre-determined date,all the information is gathered together and processed in one go.Considering an electricity billing system: Batch
Processing Information from the employees file New information from timesheets Output reports and error reports Output the pay slips Update employees file Make back-up copies of the files Inputs are: customer details (adress),charge per kw of power,previous readings,new readings taken from the electricity meter,bank account details,etc.
The processing done is calculation of: number of units of electricity used,customer´s cost,outstanding amount owed or carried over to the next bill,etc.
outputs are: bill showing all the details,updating of customer file,production of request for payment if not done through direct debit,etc. Many library systems are controlled by the computer.They susually involve the use of: Barcodes library card Barcodes In a computerised library system based on barcodes there are two files Book file: barcode,book title,name of author,date published,number of books and the date due back
Borrower´s file: borrower´s name,borrower´s details and the barcode of the book borrowed borrower takes a book book´s barcode is scanned details are found in Book file Book file is linked to the borrower´s file and both are updated On a daily basis,the borrower´s file is interrogated by the computer to see which books are overdue for return: computer reads a record from the book file it compares the date due back with the current date if the date due back is less than or equal to the current date using the barcode number of the book the book file is linked to the borrer´s file and teh corresponding record is read. Customer details are then found and a letter is automatically sent out the next record in the book file is the read until the whole file has been checked. Record Keeping To evaluate the advantages of using a computer system for record keeping, we will consider the case of a small bookshop. This shop keeps files on the books in stock and on their customer base. Using a simple database it would be easy to keep this information in an electronic form. This would make it easy to contact customers if a particular book was just published or to check on their buying habits. If a customer came into the shop it would also be far easier to search for a particular book. No paper records would need to be kept. Advantages Less room would used up in the shop since no paper record would need to be kept.
It would be quicker and easier to find details of a particular book or find out whether or not it was in stock.
The system would be less expensive, since it wouldn't be necessary to employ somebody to do all the filling and searching.
There would be fewer errors since no manual checking of paper files would be done Disadvantages The shop would need to buy a computer and software to run the system.
It would take a lot of time and effort to transfer all the paper files to a database.
If not back-ups are made, information could be lost. Club and society records Clubs and societies need to keep records of their membership. The information held typically includes payment details, contact details, interests, etc. A simple database is often used to hold all this information, making it unnecessary to keep paper records. Consequently, if a particular item of interest comes up then the computer system can quickly scan all the records on file and find out who would be interested in this topic. The organization can then automatically contact the member by email or using mail merging, send out a letter and flyer. A typical data protection act The purpose of a data protection act is to protect the rights of the individual about whom data is obtained.
Any data protection act is based on 8 simple principles:
1. Data must be fairly and lawfully processed
2.Data can only be processed for the started purposed.
3. Data must be adequate, relevant and not excessive.
4. Data must be accurate.
5. Data must not be kept longer than necessary.
6. Data must be processed in accordance with the data subject's rights.
7. Data must be kept secure.
8. Data must not be transferred to another country unless they too have adequate protection. Failure to abide by these simple rules can lead to a fine and/or imprisonment to anyone who holds data about individuals.
There are general guidelines about how to stop data being obtained unlawfully:
Don't leave personal information lying around on a desk when not being used.
Lock all filing cabinets at the end of the day or when an office is unmanned for any length of time.
Do not leave data on a monitor if unattended or log off from a computer system if it is to be unattended for a time.
Protect passwords and don't give them out to anybody else.
Change passwords regularly and select passwords which are difficult to "crack".
Make sure anything in a fax/email is not of a sensitive nature Robots are used in many areas of manufacturing, from heavy work right through to delicate operations. Examples: paint spraying of car bodies, welding bodywork on cars, manufacturing of microchips, manufacturing electrical goods and automatic warehouses. Control of robots is either through embedded microprocessors or linked to a computer system. Programming of the robot to do a task is generally done in one of two ways:
The robot is programmed with a sequence of instructions which allow it to carry out a series of tasks.
Alternatively, a human operator manually carries out a series of tasks and how each task is done is relayed back to the robot (embedded processor) or controlling computer. The sequence of instructions is remembered so that the robot can automatically carry out each task identically each time. Robots are often equipped with sensors so they can gather important information about their surroundings. Sensors also prevent them from doing "stupid things", such as stopping a robot spraying a car if no car is present, or stopping the spraying operation if the supply of paint has run out, etc. Robots are very good at repetitive tasks . However, if there are many different tasks then it is often better to still use human operators. Advantages & Disadvantages ADVANTAGES Robots can work in environments harmful to human operators.
They can work non-stop.
They are less expensive in the long term. Although they are expensive to buy initially, they don't need wages.
Productivity is higher, since they do not need holidays, are not ill, etc.
They is greater consistency-every car coming off a production line is identical.
They can do boring, repetitive tasks, leaving humans free to do other more skilled work. DISADVANTAGES Robots find it difficult to do "unusual" tasks.
They replace skilled labour, leading to unemployment.
Since robots do many of the tasks once done by humans, there is a risk of de-skilling.
Because robots are independent of the skills base, factories can be moved anywhere in the world, again causing unemployment. Barcodes They allow quick identification of product details once the barcode has been scanned by a barcode reader. The electronic point os sale (EPOS) terminals incorporate a barcode reader that scans the barcode and retrieve the price of the article, relaying information back to the computer system. Barcodes are made up of alternating dark and light lines of varying thickness. A number inderneath the barcode usually consists of four parts: country code, manufacturer's code, product code and a check digit. The check digit is a form o validation which is used to make sure no errors occured during the reading of the barcode. Barcodes are used in the following applications:
library book systems
administration systems
passport ID card systems
some surglar alarm systems
equipment checking systems
automatic stock control systems. (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr A simulation is the creation of a model of a real system in order to study the behaviour of the system. The model is computer generated and is based on mathematical representations Why simulations are used? Less expensive
in many ocations it is safer to use simulations
various scenarios can be tried out in advance
it is faster to try options in the simulator than in real life Limitations to use simulations limited use in some very complex applications (e.g. simulating Nuclear process
very expensive to set up
they often require very fast processors/ computer systems There are three basic types of processing: batch processing With batch processing, a number of tasks are collected over a period of time. This tasks are then loaded into the system and processed all at once. This type of processing is useful where there are no timing constraints Real-time processing This type of processing is an example of online processing. When booking seats at the theater or a flight, this type of processing is required. Real-time process control: This system usually involves sensors and feedback loops. In real-time processing, files are updated in real time, so physical quantities are continually monitored and the input is processed quickly to influence the input source Turtle graphics: It is essentially the control of the movement of a "turtle" on a computer screen by a number of key instructions which can be typed in. Use of sensors to control or monitor applications In monitoring, the computer reviews the data from the sensors. If the values are outside the given parameters, it takes action to try and get the values within acceptable ranges Advantages of using
sensors to monitoring:
computer won´t forget to take readings
computer´s response is much faster
readings are more accurate Advantages for controlling processes:
it is better controlling from distance if it is dangerous
the response time is much faster
it is a safe method if something goes wrong These systems have been developed to mimic the expertise and knowledge of an expert in a particular field. For example:
* diagnosing a person's illness
* chess games
* tax and financial calculations
* identification of plants, animals, and chemical compounds. * provide consistant answers
* they never forget to answer a question when determining the logic
* reduces time taken to solve a problem * Errors in the knowledge base can lead to incorrect decisions being made
* they can lack common sense in osme of the decision-making processes
* expenssive for the set up
* training is necessary for an accurate use. Disadvantages Advantages How to set up an expert system * Experts in the field are interviewed to find out what is needed in the expert system.
* data is then collected from these experts.
* a knowledge base is designed and then created
* the rules base is designed and created
* an inference engine is designed and created
* the input screen and output format are also designed and created - this is known as the user interface.
* the expert system is tested against known conditions and scenarios.
* it is also checked to see if it meets the original specification
* experts are interviewd about how effective it is before the expert system goes out on general release.
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