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CHS 121 - Ch. 13 - 19

CHS 121- New Testament and Antiquities Textbook. Unit 3
by

Marcus Stanfield

on 12 April 2016

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Transcript of CHS 121 - Ch. 13 - 19

Birth: Tarsus

"The Apostle with Special Commision"
Martyred in Rome under Nero
Imprisoned twice!!!

Paul and his Epistles
The Epistles!!
Galatians
Message:
An opening, thanksgiving, body, ethical section & closing
A "rebuke" letter
"I am astonished!"
Rhetoric & Tarsus - 3 forms of Persuasion
Ethos - Character of the speaker
Pathos - Audience's frame of mind
Logos - Words of the speech itself
1 & 2 Thessalonians
One of Paul's earliest letters.
Established the church in his second missionary Journey
Thessalonica - after Thessaloniki "The mother of Macedonia"
FREE city, therefore some social obligations
Loyalty to Rome, thus persecution from leaders
Paul must leave and is not allowed back, hence the first letter
1 & 2 Corinthians
Paul's trouble child
What marked this church? - DIVISIONS!!
"Philosophers", Suing, Socioeconomics, Spiritual Gifts, Sex & Resurrection.
Corinth:
Stopped here halfway through his 2nd missionary journey.
Stayed for about 18 months.
VERY STRATEGIC POSITIONING AND IMPORTANCE:
Controlled all north-south travel and trade & and an important hub for east-west routes.
Diolkos - 6th century B.C.- initially dry
History - Brief
Roman Corinth - Recolonized by Julius Caesar just before his assassination in 44 B.C.
Demographic:
Freedmen, Plebeians and Legionary Vets.
Loyalty - How?
Largest city of Roman Greece and helped with expansion
Sooooo.....Why greek and not Latin?
the incolae - Why were they here
Dichotomic - "No more did I enter Corinth than I realized that Shamelessness of the rich there and the disgrace of its poor." - Alcifron
Saul of Tarsus
Praenomen, nomen and cognomen
????, ???? and Paullus
Supernomen = Shaul (Saulos)
Tarsus
Pg. 251 - No ordinary city
Rhetoric Schools
Jewish 1st and Roman
Philippians 3:5
Persecutor & Convert
Stephen's Martyrdom (Acts 7:54-58)
Damascus (Acts 9:17)
Rebirth - Power ---> Helpless
Transformation - Repentance
But not abandonment rather fulfillment
Paul - The Herald of the Gospel
Conversion/Repentance
The importance of his Jewish Heritage
Philippians 3:5
Once Powerful and now Powerless
Symbolic of Rebirth
Apostleship
Has an encounter with Christ himself
Appointed by God
Christians & their name
Christ-Follower, Follower of the Way, Disciples, Believers, Saints, Holy People & Lastly:
Christian
not self-designated but initially pejorative
His Letters:
Prison Epistles - 2 imprisonments
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
Philemon
Pastoral Epistles
1 & 2 Timothy
Titus
Did Paul really write all of those letters?
Remember the culture allowed for writing in other's names, it is not necessary that he wrote them all, however it would have been a disciple of his if not himself.
Paul's Foundational Ideas
1. One God
Shema - "Hear"
2. One Way
other religions have no place beside the gospel
3. One Mediator
Jesus Christ
His deity makes him different
Paul's Central proclamation to the gentiles:
"Jesus Christ is LORD" (Phil. 2:11)
"Jesus Christ is Savior" (Phil. 3:20)
"Jesus Christ is God" (Titus 2:13)
Firstborn of all Creation?!?!
High Christology
Death and Resurrection
Resurrection
Atonement
Justified
"declared Righteous"
New Covenant
Reconciled
FORGIVENESS
Implications:
Social
Gender
Ethnicity
Socioeconomic Status
Future Oriented = HOPE!
The return of Christ is the consummation of human history, a time when all will confess that Jesus is LORD.
Romans
Ephesians and Colossians
Philippians & Philemon
The Pastoral Letters
James
Hebrews
1. Greetings
2. Rebuke
Correction of the Gospel plus Circumcision
You are Justified! - 3:24-26
3. Request
Outside the Law
Be like me!
For Freedom's sake
4. Closing Summary and Greeting
1Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1. Epistolary Greeting
2. Opening Thanksgiving
Timothy brought good news! - Faith, Love and Hope
3. The Body of the Letter
Sexual Morality (4:1-8)
Philadelphia (4:9-10)
Parousia (4:15)
4. The Final Prayer, Greetings, and Blessing
1. The Epistolary Greeting
2. The Thanksgiving and Prayers for the Thessalonians
Persecution* (1:5-10)
3. The Body of the Letter
The Day of the LORD* (2:1-17)
Apostasia
The Man of Lawlessness
Work* (3:6-15)
The kingdom allows for benefaction because everyone is doing what they ought!
4. The Final Prayer and Greeting
Authorship and Date
1 Thessalonians
Author: Paul With Timothy and Silas?
Date: A.D. 51
Location: Corinth
Audience: Artisans, Craftsmen, God-Fearing Greeks
Sources: Shepherd of Hermas, Didache, Letters of Ignatius, Eusebius, Tertullian
2 Thessalonians
Author: Paul?
Style is SOOO similar
Post Pauline theology
"Tradition Handed down"?
Date: A.D. 51*
Location: Corinth
Audience: Artisans, Craftsmen, God-Fearing Greek
1 Corinthians: (or is it 2 corinthians (5:9-11)
Paul's impassioned attempt to correct the problems as well as pastor
Chloe (1:11-12) or her business associates or slaves who had become believers
Issues, Issues and more Issues:
Gnosticism, Hellenistic-Jewish wisdom speculation, factionalism, conflict with paul, eschatology
Outline:





Authorship and Date:
Paul, between A.D. 52-55 probably A.D. 54 during his Ephesian Ministry.
I. Opening Greeting and thanksgiving (1:1-9)
II. Paul's Response to Reports about the Corinthian Church (1:10-6:20)
A. Division over leadership and wisdom
B. Immorality in the community: Incest, church discipline, lawsuits, prostitution.
III. Paul's response to the Corinthian's Letter
A. Marriage
B. Food sacrificed to idols
C. Worship
D. Resurrection
E. Collection fund
IV. Final Exhortation, blessing and Greetings (16:13-24)
Division/Factionalism
Immorality
Marriage & Meat
Worship and Res.
Paul
Apollos
Cephas
Christ
NOT SOPHISTS BUT CO-WORKERS:
1 plants and 1 waters but GOD causes growth!
Incest
Prostitutes
taking each other to court
Sexual Purity :
How can you take members of Christ and join them to a prostitute?
celibacy although married! YIKES!
Advantages to single-hood
Divorce - Xianity should not be excuse to divorce
Now to the matter of MEAT!
Sacrificed
Tables at temples
Unbelievers house
Head Coverings
men and women
Headship: 11:11-12
Lord's Supper
Some going hungry
Some getting drunk
Believer's resurrection
to deny this is to deny Christ.
2 Corinthians
Timothy returns with troubling news (16:11)
Paul makes a quick trip but is rejected by the church in Corinth*
"tearful letter" (2:4) of rebuke For a "painful visit"- Titus to gauge response
Titus brings good and bad news - (Shame and Infiltration)
This letter is written in Fall of A.D. 56 in response to this relief and dread
travels to Corinth a third time from Macedonia, This is when he writes the letter of Romans
The issue of 1-9 and 10 - 13
two separate letters?, An Amalgamation of Several?
7:4,16 juxtaposed to 11:2-4
part of the tearful letters
an appending after reunion with Titus?
The Big QUESTION...WHY?
Us?: one continuous letter dealing with different focus.
1-9: Corinthian's response to his "tearful letter"
10-13: Dealing with the super-apostles
Outline:

Issues:
Pedal word for profit
Super Apostles & Leadership
Collection
Eulogia, Charis, and Koinania
I. Greetings (1:1-2)
II. Thanksgiving (1:3-7)
III. Paul's Reason for not visiting (1:8-2:13)
IV. Paul's Defense of His Ministry (2:14-6:13)
V. Personal Appeal to the Corinthians (6:14-7:16)
VI. Appeal for Contribution to Judea (8:1-9:15)
VII. Defense of His Ministry (10:1-11:21)
VIII. Paul's Boasts as a "fool" (11:22-12:13)
IX. Paul's plan for a visit (12:14-13:10)
X. Closing (13:11-13)
Cizitizenship: Roman
http://www.bible-history.com/maps/romanempire/index.html
Relevance
Connection to meeting with Peter, James and John in 2:1-10 is key.
North Galatian Theory - After Jerusalem Council (Acts 15)
Galatians = "The Gauls" from modern day France & Switzerland
Written to an ethnic group
2:11-14 - Pulling away
SO...where is Galatia?
South Galatian Theory (2:1-10) - Famine Visit (Acts 11:27-30)
The province of Galatia extended nearly to Mediterranean Sea
Includes Antioch Pisidian, Lystra Iconium and Derbe
Use of the Roman Provincial name vs. ethnic regional name
Modified Theory (2:1-10) - Jerusalem Council
Barnabas is mentioned as if the church knows him
Barnabas was only with Paul on his initial journey
Therefore....
...it is likeley that Paul founded the church on the first journey, this would place the church conceivably within the jurisdiction of the Jerusalem church.
Setting:
Galatians are for sure Gentiles (4:8-9)
Complex: Indigenous Layer, Greek Layer & Roman Layer
Common to all three:
Elemental Capricious Spirits
Paul & Barnabas - Zeus and Hermes
Acts 14:11-12
Then why circumcision?
Intruders, agitators & preverters of the gospel! (1:6-7; 5:10, 12)
Galatians Combats: "Judaizing" - adding social boundaries
Hypocritical (2:14)
Christ plus Circumcision (6:12-13)
Paganism
3 crucial contrasts:
The law and the Spirit
The law and the Promise
The Law and Faith
=paidagogos, training wheels
Was there a point to the law?
YES! - 3:24-25
FREEDOM!!!!!
5:1- It is for Freedom's sake!
Refers to circumcision as slavery...what does this represent to you? (5:1; 5:12)
Freedom leads to choice!!!!
Flesh or Spirit (5:16; 5:20-21 vs. 6:1-2)
Maturity of thought
Juxtaposed to direction of the law
Awaits Timothy's report and this time there is good news to report
Faith, Love & Hope
Some theological issues (4:13-5:11) & Moral Issues (4:1-8)
Some Jews but a greater response from "God-fearing Greeks"
Paul spent 3 weeks evangelizing
Leaves due to the persecution and goes to Corinth
"These men who have caused trouble all over the world have now come here!"
epideictic rhetoric
Rome: Setting
Social
Rome's Religion
Poly....what?
Assimilation of conquered gods
Rome's society
Capital City...of the EMPIRE
What was the church's sociological profile?
Mainly Gentiles, but anchored in a Jewish community. (Expulsion in AD49)
What kind of tensions could this bring up?
Contextual
End of 3rd Missionary Journey
Written in Corinth during 3 month stay
Paul is figuring out where to go next.
He has always wanted to go to Rome, but has not been able to thus far.
Most systematic treatment of Christian faith...HOW?
Requests prayer from the church in Rome
Judean Collection
Collected from Gentiles for those in Judea
Nothing could possibly go wrong...right?
High school buddies in Judea, now his enemies
Purpose
Moves West, Rome is strategic
location
Resources
Vision (established)
Has faced some real or hypothetical Criticism
Wants to __________ himself as the __________ ___________! (2:16)
Unification of the Church
Gentile and Jew!!! (9:1-11:36)
"one body...living in harmony with one another" (12:5, 16)
THE ISSUE OF 16
early (16:24) vs. Greek
Literary Form
A. Opening
1. Greeting
2. Thanksgiving
3. Reason for writing
4. Theme
B. Conclusion
1. Upcoming Plans
2. Commendations
3. Doxology
Two Main Sections:
Doctrinal instructions
Ethical exhortation
Salutation and Introduction
1:1-17
Expanded Greeting: 1:1-7 - Why?
Introduction of the MAIN THESIS
The gospel is basically the power of God to save everyone who believes, EVERYONE! (1:16-17, Hab. 2:4)
Theological Exegesis of the Gospel
universal sin and guilt (1:18-3:20)
1:19-23
Usurpation of God as Creator
Inappropriate Sexual Relations
Misdirected Worship
Corrupted Ethics
"With great power comes great responsibility"
If you live by law, then breaking it puts you in a worse position then the those who don't 2:17-27
Inward not outward
work of the spirit vs. circumcision 2:28-29
Justification 3:21-5:21
FAITH...ALONE!!
Models: 4:3
Abraham
Works of the law cannot be a precondition for salvation!
Our redeemed position with Christ
peace with God
grace that transforms character
hope, even in suffering
Adam & Second Adam
Sanctification - "a return to goodness" (6:1-8:39)
restoration - the beautiful word
Tyranny of Sin (6:14)
Freedom
holiness
eternal life
one issue with this teaching
Anti-nomianism - Faith Alone (extreme)
...really?...
Jesus...& the holy spirit. (8:1-30)
The flesh or the Spirit
Works of the spirit
indwells and transforms
implants holy desires
controls the mind
gives life
puts to death evil deeds
leads to self-control
confirms our spiritual adoption
intercedes on our behalf
Rejection and restoration (9:1-11:36)
Not your pedigree...your F_ _ _ H!
God did not reject or fail! We did!
"Why does this matter in our lives?" said the Romans.
BASIC ALGEBRA! - Paul Says
Rt + Rb = RL!
4 areas that require a Christians Consideration
community ethics (12:1-21)
political ethics (13:1-7)
personal ethics (13:8-14)
"strong & weak" (14:1-15:33)
Generosity, love, liberality and patience are the hallmarks of a redeemed life!! Competition gives way to service!
Being good citizens is vital, but does not set us apart, rather our belief the politics aren't final.
Goodness extended beyond faith
Strict scruples vs. freedom
Central Theme
1. Jews and Gentiles?
2. Individuality?
or
3. Individual Jews and Gentiles?
Setting
Audience
Firstly: Whoever they were it was a new social context.
Baptism had bound them together with new social boundaries.
Social Tension
10:33-34
Message
Encouragement and Admonition
DON'T LOSE HOPE!!!
Keep ON, KEEPING ON!
Author's response to their situation?
10:24-25
6:1
Author & Date
Author: Anonymous
2:1-3
Barabas, Clement of Rome, Luke, Silas, Peter, Apollos, Priscilla, Paul
Date: Pre-70
S_______________ System is present tense
Pre-N___ P__________ (12:4)
Theory 1
Jewish Community
name and extensive use of O.T.
Jerusalem or Rome
Suetonius in 49 A.D.
13:24
Rhetoric
The Greatness of Jesus
Above Angels & Moses
Typology
Priesthood & Tabernacle (5:1-10)
Verbal Analogy
5:5-6
Qal Wahomer
2:2-3
7:23-25
alliteration, homoioptoton, inclusio, anaphora
Logos, Pathos Ethos
Patron/Client - God/Us
Seneca
Theory 2
Gentile Converts
Would have known O.T. tradition
Tatian & Justin Martyr
13:9-10
10:34
Who is persecuting them?
Context:
After 3rd Missionary Journey
Which means...? "PE"
Colossians:
Locale: 100 miles east of Ephesus
Phrygia - Modern Day Turkey
Fertile: figs, olives & sheep
Worship: Traditional Phrygian Worship
Kings: Midas, Gordios
gods: Sabazios, Agdistis, Cybele & Attis (2:23)
Stoicheia & Astrology
pg. 339 (2:8) NRSV
Jews too!? pg. 340 Solomon's wisdom
Magic
Asceticism (2:20-23)
Message of Colossions:
Two fronts:
Ideological
(1:15-19)
Sociological
(2:20-23) again
So what about Fasting?
1 Cor. 7:5
Three Truths
3:1-3:4 New Position
3:5-3:9 New Life
3:10-4:1New Nature
Outline Of Colossions:
Greetings: 1:1-2
Thanksgiving (1:3-14)
Majesty of Christ (1:15-23)
Mystery of Christ (1:24-29)
Call to steadfastness (2:1-7)
Warnings against "Philosophy" (2:8-23)
Practical Exhortations (3:1-4:6)
Christian Living
New Life
The Household
Paul's imprisonment
Personal Notes and Closing (4:7-18)
Epesians: "the greatest of Paul's writings" ?
Locale:
Port city (Strategic)
Spent 2 years here on his 3rd Missionary journey
Liturgical in nature - 1:3-14
What does this suggest about audience?
Outline of Ephesians:
Greeting and Prayer (1:1-2)
The Church and the work of Christ (2:1-3:21)
The obligations of the Church (4:1-6:16)
Closing Exhortation (6:18-24)
Message of Ephesians:
Stay firm & Steadfast
Magic, astrology etc.
Ecclesiological in nature
Pairs well with the Christological nature of Colossians
Jews & Gentiles now becoming one in C _ _ _ _ _
4:4-6
4:11 - Gifts for the building of the church
Submission (5:21)
Each person probably served many roles
5:22 - No VERB!!!
Aristotle's
Generation of Animals
and antiquated views on women
5:25
6:10-17
WHY ARMOR!?
Authorship?
diablos vs. satanos
hapax legomena
Ephesians has 80
Galatians: 30
Romans, 1&2 Corinthians: 100 ea.
amanuensis
Tertius - Tachygraphy (Rom. 16:22)
Luke
http://prezi.com/foum11vewv2m/copy-of-phillipians/
http://prezi.com/hma4v_pwz2di/copy-of-philemon/
http://prezi.com/aaloir6fyega/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share
"See to it that no one takes you captive through philosophy and empty deceit, according to human tradition, according to the elemental spirits of the universe,[c] and not according to Christ." - Collosians 2:8
"These have indeed an appearance of wisdom in promoting self-imposed piety, humility, and severe treatment of the body, but they are of no value in checking self-indulgence." - Colossians 2:23
"Do not deprive one another except perhaps by agreement for a set time, to devote yourselves to prayer, and then come together again, so that Satan may not tempt you because of your lack of self-control." - 1 Corinthians 7:5
(pathos)
(ethos)
(logos)
https://www.google.com/maps/place/Archea+Korinthos+200+07,+Greece/@37.6066564,22.5080886,7.57z/data=!4m2!3m1!1s0x14a01105a43f5577:0x500bd2ce2b9e8d0
"Since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, he [the Emperor Claudius] expelled them from Rome." - Suetonius
Pastorals
https://prezi.com/g_-_je0vv9yr/pastoral-letters/
1 & 2 Timothy
https://prezi.com/g0g07ug2wkml/letters-to-timothy/
Full transcript