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Parmenides

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grant Mercer

on 6 October 2012

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Transcript of Parmenides

PARMENIDES Elean Philosopher (515 B.C.) Grant Mercer, Kritin Arya, Rachel Wehbe, Ryan Bradely, Devin Richardson, Christian Genord, Abby Knight, Austin Mendoza Main Theory: Everything that 'is' is and everything that isn't can never be. Main Idea: everything is infinitely divisible and that even the smallest portion of matter contains some of each element, mind is responsible for everything, and being cannot arise from nothing. Anaxagoras How can snow be the opposite of black and white? Parmenides believed nothing changes. Snow will always remain white. Snow is white, it will not change. EX:
Anaxagoras believed the
the mind was responsible
for everything. Anaxagoras says that "mind is something infinite and self-controlling, and that is has been mixed with no thing, but is alone itself by itself."Unfortunately this is nearly all he has to say about mind. Neither does he go into detailing the nature of mind, nor does he present a theory that explains the unfolding of reality on basis of mind. 2 Early Life Parmenides was born in the Greek colony of Elea (now Ascea), He was descended from a wealthy and illustrious family. Parmenides was the founder of the School of Elea EX:
Anaxagoras believed
that snow is the opposite
of black and white. Heraclitus Anaxagoras attempts to explain how there can be becoming while maintaining Parmenides' position that what is, is and for this reason cannot come into being . Anaxagoras believes being cannot arise from non being, by still trying to say that change doesn't exist. What Anaxagoras is trying to prove doesn't fit into his beliefs. -Believes change is real Heraclitus believes that everything changes. He is wrong because nothing changes. For example, if you paint a desk white, it is still a desk. Or if a human changes personality or religion, that person is still a human being. Their beliefs or personality does not change what you are. Therefore, Heraclitus is wrong. Democritus Empedocles •Believes change occurs but reality is fundamentally changeless. Beliefs False •Parmenides believes change does not occur because nothing can become anything other than it was. Reality does change, because it is not a solid thing. •Nature consists of earth, air, fire, and water. All natural processes were due to the coming together and separating of these four elements. • Things are made up of atoms, and these are not elements that have been proven to exist. Nothing is made up of earth, air, fire, and water, because everything has it's own unique composition with elements bonded together. •There were two different forced at work in nature: Love and Strife. Love binds things together, strife separates them. • Love cannot bind things together and strife cannot break them apart. Nothing binds and nothing is destroyed. Parmenides believes nothing changes and whatever is is. Change is an illusion and this is not possible, therefore the argument of change is impossible. Nevertheless, Empedocles also asserts that his senses do not deceive him when they tell him that there is becoming. • It is not possible to perceive with senses that things change because Parmenides states our senses are unreliable. •In his poem Purifications, Empedocles states his belief in reincarnation. • Reincarnation does not exist. Nothing ever changes. Once one is, it will always be. Once one perishes it will remain perished. Change is absurd, whatever “is” is, and whatever “is not” should not be heard. Our senses are unreliable, and change is deniable. Slogans Quotes Believes in his Atomic Theory, which states that atoms are present in all the forms of existence and all atoms are individually created and cannot be separated Major Works: -On Nature -Life is a cycle that goes both ways In the proem, Parmenides describes the journey of a young man from darkness to light. Carried in a whirling chariot, the man reaches a temple sacred to an unnamed goddess. He must learn all things, she tells him, both truth, which is certain, and human opinions; which are not reliable, but provide an aspect of the whole truth Democritus believes that all atoms are individually created and cannot be separated. “We can speak and think only of what exists. And what exists is uncreated and imperishable for it is whole and unchanging and complete. It was not or nor shall be different since it is now, all at once, one and continuous...” The Way of Truth The Proem Symbol It has been scientifically proven today that atoms are divisible. Modern Day
Application This section discusses what is real. Here, Parmenides stated that there are two ways of inquiry: that it is, that it is not.[12] He said that the latter argument is never feasible because nothing can not be. He believed that all atoms are seen separate from each other and each atom has separate characteristics. “You can not have knowledge of what is not, you can not grasp or express” Perception vs. Logos Atoms don't change based on what they make up. Example, a tree doesn't have different atoms than a chair. -everything in the cosmos is a flux;
everything has a beginning and an end, therefore it chagnes Parmenides claimed that the truth cannot be known through sensory perception. Only logical reasoning will result in the understanding of the truth of the world. "The only roads of enquiry there are to think of: one, that it is and that it is not possible for it not to be, this is the path of persuasion (for truth is its companion); the other, that it is not and that it must not be — this I say to you is a path wholly unknowable." The Way of Opinion Parmenides theory is better because he states that change doesn't occur, which could be interpreted that just because atoms are in different things doesn't take away from the fact that it's still an atom and hasn't changed. Parmenides proceeds to explain the structure of the becoming cosmos (which is an illusion, of course) in which everything is made of either fire or night. These represent light and heavy elements which combine to form all things in the Universe. -Everything follow the laws of nature -The atoms of a dead being are re-used to create new being, life and death being a cycle that's is never ending Beliefs Parmenides believed that nothing can come out of nothing, and nothing that exists can become nothing. This basically means that nothing can truly be created or destroyed.

This principle can be connected to modern day life through the first law of thermodynamics. This law, better known as the law of conservation of energy, is scientific fact and states that energy can never be created or destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Since the energy is never created or destroyed, it never truly changes; the same energy simply moves around in different forms. -In us the living and the dead,
wakefulness and sleep,
youth and old age, are one and
the same: for the ones
are changed into the
others, and reciprocally. Parmenides Theory First Law of Thermodynamics (Law of Conservation of Energy) Nothing can come out of nothing Nothing that exists can become nothing Energy can never be created Energy can never be destroyed Main Idea: Heraclitus believes that life is a cycle that goes both ways. In this system, up is down,and down is up.The becoming of the cosmos is explained in physical terms: fire dies and is changed into air, air dies and becomes water, water dies to become earth, and so on, an interchanging of life and death between different elements
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