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The Working Cell

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Engers Fernandez

on 29 September 2015

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Transcript of The Working Cell

The Working Cell
Cell Membrane

Dr. Engers Fernandez
Extracellular Space
Cell Membrane
transport of a substance across a cell membrane where expenditure of energy is
the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.
Simple Diffusion:
process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary such as a integral membrane protein.
Channel Mediated
Movement of a solution across a membrane with the aid of a transport agent
binding of the molecule to the site promotes a conformational change in protein carrier, resulting in transport of molecule across membrane
Describe exocytosi and endocytosis in
your own words - use diagrams to explain the process. (Word document - email it to engersf@gmail.com)
Energy Production
Aerobic (
Anaerobic (No
Cellular respiration
-Glycolysis ( 2 ATP + 2 Pyruvic Acid + 2 NADH)
-Krebs Cycle (2 AtP + 6 NADH + 2 FADH)
-Electron Transport Chain ( 34 ATP )

1 Glucose = 38 ATP
Anaerobic Systems
Immediate anaerobic
short-term anaerobic
supplies energy for no more than 6-8 seconds
‘high energy’ stored body chemicals – such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP) and a chemical reaction that ‘fires’ them up.
high-powered energy for up to 90 seconds
Cellular Reproduction
The Structure and Function of DNA
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction.
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromatid, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes
the point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.
each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.
histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes
nucleosome is the basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores.
Nucleic Acids
-Macromulecule which main function is to store
-Provide instructions for building proteins.
-Polymers (Monomers = Nucleotides)
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Ribonucleic acid
Nucleotides (Monomers)
G - C
T - A
Simple Formula
How it works?
Define in Your Own Words
-Genetic Replication
-Genetic Transcription
-Genetic Translation
Monday 11:59 p.m.
Email: engersf@gmail.com
Central Dogma

this affects gene Expression, as methylated dna is not easily transcribed. The degree of methylation is passed on to daughter strands at mitosis by maintainance dna methylases.
process by which methyl groups are added to certain nucleotides in genomic dna.
deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
a nucleic acid that is generally single stranded, which main role is plays a role in transferring information from DNA to protein-forming system of the cell.
They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.
is a system of membranes that possesses ribosomes
involved in the transport of materials
a complex of vesicles and folded membranes, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
contain materials that are to be excreted from the cell.
digest excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.
is the breakdown of very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation.
Help to organize chromosomes during cell division
Cytoskeletal elements
is the movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
denoting or relating to a solution having the same osmotic pressure as some other solution, especially one in a cell or a body fluid.
having a lower osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically a body fluid or intracellular fluid.
having a higher osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically a body fluid or intracellular fluid.
The process of separating suspended particles from the fluid through a porous material in which the fluid can pass while the suspended particles are retained.
Life - Ends @ The Cellular Level
Cell =
Cell Membrane
Genetic Information
Full transcript