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Communication Modes for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students
Transcript of Communication Modes for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students
Many more recent programs involve "language switching," using ASL when appropriate for the student/situation and English when appropriate for the student/situation. This helps the student(s) learn ASL as the complete language it is.
Popular with parents because it is easier for them to learn manually coded systems than ASL, but still allows the child access to spoken and written English that will help the child be more fully a part of the hearing world. Simultaneous communication in both manual and oral methods of instruction and incorporates all as needed - fingerspelling, sign, speech, etc. It is unrealistic to think all methods will be given equal treatment. Teachers tend to favor one over the other.
Although TC is supposed to be driven by the needs of the individual child, in practice it is more likely driven by the skills of the teacher.
Teachers often do not focus enough on speech development.
It is impossible to accurately and completely use ASL at the same time using spoken English so the manual system chosen is a code rather than a language and the students miss out on the benefits of learning a true manual language.
It may also present an inadequate picture of English as a complete language. Oral-Aural A communication method that uses spoken English and also typically provides speech and aural therapy. Children, in turn, are to use speech, speechreading and audition to understand and communicate in spoken English. Signs are discouraged, even unallowable, although natural gestures are permitted. Advantages Disadvantages Most parents of deaf children are hearing. Understandably, this makes them wish for their child to be as part of the hearing world as possible. Oral-aural therapy is more likely to accomplish this than manual methods of communication.
Some research shows that children who learn successfully from this method are more likely to have English skills (reading, writing, etc.) that match their hearing peers.
It is a more flexible approach than auditory/verbal if only because it allows the child to use speechreading skills. Not all deaf children have the capability to learn effectively with this method, even with auditory assistance. If this method is insisted upon regardless of the child's capabilities, it can be extremely detrimental for the child.
Background noise needs to be kept to a minimum. This is often difficult in an active, engaged classroom, especially when the deaf child is mainstreamed.
For deaf children who rely a lot on speechreading, the teacher must always be aware of the classroom conditions and be careful to avoid certain situations that would hamper the child’s ability to understand spoken language. For example, avoiding dimly lit areas, always making sure the child can see the teacher’s lips. This can be cumbersome in a mainstreamed class and no matter how hard the teacher tries, the child will inevitably miss some information.
From the perspective of Deaf culture, this method is seen as threatening to the survival of the Deaf community and ASL. Auditory-Verbal This approach has the goal of the child's listening/audition skills becoming the primary method for receiving instruction. It is a specialized approach that should be done with certified therapists. A distinct difference with this approach from the oral/aural method is that speechreading is discouraged. Advantages Disadvantages The intent of this approach is to strengthen the child's auditory skills. One professional compared it to training a lazy eye.
Success with this method would enable a child to be mainstreamed and adapt well to the hearing world. This, in turn, could positively impact the child's academic and social skills.
A/V therapists are highly trained and certified to maximize potential benefit.
The parents are actively engaged in the therapy so they can effectively use the techniques at home. As with oral/aural method, not all deaf children have the capability to learn effectively with this method. If this A/V therapy is insisted upon regardless of the child's capabilities, it can be extremely detrimental for the child.
Trained specialists may be difficult to find and, if insurance does not help with the cost, expensive to use.
It requires a level of commitment from the parents that not all parents are able to provide.
The Deaf community is highly against this method as it is seen as a way of eradicating Deafness. Bilingual-Bicultural This method incorporates ASL for instruction and English for reading and writing, with little spoken language. Ideally, this approach immerses students in both ASL/Deaf culture and English language and culture. Advantages Disadvantages The exposure to Deaf culture may help many deaf children have a better sense of belonging and self-identity.
Learning written English will assist the child's reading and writing skills.
Deaf adults are supposed to play a part in establishing the curriculum, and input from individuals who truly understand deafness is beneficial. There has been little research done on this method and it is difficult to accurately gauge its effectiveness and figure out which parts are successful and which are not.
Almost all existing ESL programs for children using two spoken languages, not one spoken and one manual.
Without a spoken English component, it is likely to be difficult for deaf children to adapt to the hearing world. Cued Speech This method supplements an oral/aural approach by coding phonemes of the English language and helping the child distinguish between "sounds." Advantages Disadvantages Research done since the 1990s indicates that Cued Speech helps keep deaf children on equal footing as their hearing peers when it comes to language development and skills such as reading and writing.
It is typically easier for parents to use than ASL and other manual systems because it is easier to learn and uses less "cognitive energy."
Cued speech completely conveys the English language, just from a visual standpoint instead of an auditory standpoint.
Research shows that using Cued Speech even uses the "auditory cortex." There are comparatively few Cued Speech interpreters. Its use is far from widespread so children learning and relying on this method will be at a disadvantage in communicating with many others.
Because it is not used widely, children who cue, may suffer from a social skills standpoint when it comes to peer interaction.
This method is misunderstood by both the hearing and Deaf cultures. Deaf people see it as threatening to Deaf culture and ASL. Hearing people think it is a sign language system. Cochlear implants (left) and hearing aids (right) are expected to be used in both the oral/aural method and auditory/verbal therapy. The charts show the handshapes (below) and face positions (above) for Cued Speech. Children are immersed in ASL in the bilingual method and encouraged to use ASL as their primary method of communication. Fingerspelling is an acceptable tool in the Total Communication approach. Here, the word "bus" is fingerspelled. Here is a fascinating example of how Cued Speech works for even the most difficult sound patterns. Bilingual instruction is seen in this interaction between a teacher and student. A young lady shares her gratitude for bilingual education allowing her to communicate more effectively with her family. This short video teaches children the colors of the rainbow using Total Communication tools. This video by VOICE advocates for Auditory/Verbal therapy from several perspectives. This video (left) by "Listen and Talk" helps illustrate the importance of parental involvement in A/V therapy. This video discusses the positives to the oral/aural approach from the perspectives of a school that specializes in this method. An advocate for Cued Speech shares his perspective on how it helped him. Video includes examples of Cued Speech in education and daily life. Communication Modes for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children This is a wonderful video with several instances of what using Cued Speech looks like in a classroom with deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Be especially sure to watch from the beginning until about the 3:30 minute mark and then again from about 5:00 - 7:00 minutes. Click the right arrow at the bottom of the screen whenever you are ready to move on to the next part. Each click on the right arrow mouse progresses the path of the show.