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1.5 impact of emerging technologies
Transcript of 1.5 impact of emerging technologies
Artificial intelligence AI biometrics
Computer assisted translation
3-D and holographic imaging
1.5.1 AI biometrics
many fingerprint identification systems falsely reject a person’s fingerprints when the scanned fingerprints are checked against the database no matches are found.
Artificial intelligence (AI) biometrics overcomes this problem using
- the system learns by using Al about a person’s fingerprints on every scan. This means a person doesn’t have to worry about getting their finger in exactly the right place every time on the scanner. The system learns from the different alignments and is therefore still able to match the fingerprints to those stored on a database.
Facial-recognition systems have the same problem. A human being is still able to recognise a face even if the person has grown facial hair, now wears glasses or has aged. Computerised facial-recognition systems are confused by such soft biometric changes. New systems use AI to learn from scanning a number of faces and can pick out these soft biometric features. This means the system can still recognize faces and cross-reference these attributes with corresponding images stored on the database.
Other AI biometric technologies are being developed, so these security systems become increasingly more reliable
1.5.2 Vision Enhancement
Light Vision enhancement systems (LVES)
use video technology through a headset connected to a computer. The system allows images to be projected inside the headset in front of the eyes. This effectively brings the objects closer for examination by the user of the system.
Night vision enhancement (NVE)
amplifies infrared light and visible light so that an image can still be seen in apparent darkness.
For example, the military use this technology to carry out surveillance at night. The dim light source is captured and passed through an image intensifier tube, which converts the light into electrons. These electrons pass through another tube where they are amplified to produce several times the original number of electrons. A screen at the end of the tube is coated in phosphor dots that glow when electrons collide with them this results in an image that is considerably clearer than the original.
1.5 impact of emerging technologies
Robotics has been around for many years, mostly in the
They are used in car factories to weld car bodies, spray body panels and fit items such as windscreens. No human intervention is required.
One application is the use of
. These are unmanned flying devices that are used by both the military and civilians. The military have used drones in reconnaissance missions for a number of years.
1.5.4 Quantum cryptography
Cryptography is the science of making a message unintelligible to any unauthorised user (a hacker). This technique is often referred to as encryption.
1.5.5 Computer-assisted translation (CAT)
Existing online language translators have a very limited use.
Consider the insect called a fruit fly, which particularly enjoys eating bananas. What if we typed in the phrase: ‘fruit flies like a banana’. This could be translated into German using a free online translator as ‘fmclotfliegm wie Bing banane’.
The statement in German only refers to the banana-shaped flight path of a piece of fruit thrown through the air! Imagine a whole page being translated that is full of such double meanings of words and phrases.
1.5.6 3-D and holographic imaging
Holography is a technology that allows 3-D images (known as holograms) to be produced. The technology involves the use of:
a source of laser light
interference of light
light diffraction, and
light intensity recording.
As a holographic image is rotated, it appears to move in the same way as the original object, thus appearing to be in three dimensions (3-D).
1.5.7 Virtual reality
Virtual reality is an artificial environment created by software.
The user makes use of data goggles, sensor suits, data gloves or helmets to get a feeling of reality (that is, the feeling of ‘being there’).
The technology is used in training (for example, in a nuclear reactor where the user can see all the walls, pipes, vessels and valves as if they were inside the reactor, so that they can be trained safely to deal with certain events),
education (for example, to explore the inside of a building such as a castle in a history lesson)
or in games (where the user can interact as if they were there, such as a driving simulator where the road ahead is output on to a visor in a helmet strapped to the user’s head).
Civilian uses include surveying the landscape in 3-D for use with GPS, investigating weather phenomena (for example, flying into hurricanes or other weather conditions that would be dangerous for manned surveillance), or search and rescue fire fighting in natural disasters. All of these are currently under evaluation and many more applications could evolve over the coming years.
Another application is the use of robots in surgical procedures. Robotic surgery allows surgeons to perform complex procedures with more precision, flexibility and control than standard surgical techniques. With this technique, surgeons use robotics equipped with a camera arm and several interactive mechanical arms these have joints that work like a human’s wrist.
Quantum cryptography is based on the use of photons (light) and their physical quantum properties to produce a virtually unbreakable cryptography system. This helps protect the security of data being transmitted over fibre-optic cables. The technology relies on the fact that photons oscillate in various directions and produce a sequence of random bits (Os and ls) across the optical network. It is based on the laws of physics rather than mathematics (which is how current cryptography methods work). How this works in detail is beyond the scope of this book.
There are many methods of cryptography in existence but all of them have a limited life as computers become faster and faster at number crunching. A consequence of this is that, over the next few years, a hacker is increasingly likely to decipher encrypted messages unless computer designers can further strengthen security systems.
Computer-assisted translation (CAT) goes some way to overcome these issues. CAT is a type of language translator that uses specific software to help in the translation process. In particular, CAT uses two tools:
terminology databases linguistic databases that grow and learn from translations being carried out
translation memories these automatically insert known translations for certain words, phrases or sentences.
All CAT software needs some post-editing by the user to remove errors from the translation process. While not perfect, they are certainly more accurate than existing free online translators.
Holograms have the following applications:
engineering design (CAD)
architecture (ability to rotate design through 360 degrees)
medical imaging (see inside organs in 3-D links into tomography, which is the same technology behind 3-D printers) o cinema (special effects) a gaming (special effects)
holographic televisions (expected by around 2025, these should give a hill 3-D experience Without the need for special glasses)
holographic computer memories (a new type of optical storage -a crystal the size of a sugar cube can hold up to 1TB of data)
optical computers (these will operate at speeds that are trillions of times faster than-current technology computers).
Formation of a hologram
hologram is produced by first splitting a laser beam.
Half of the light (known as the object beam) is reflected off the object on to a photographic plate.
The other half of the light (known as the reference beam) is reflected off a mirror and on to the same photographic plate.
The holographic image is produced where the two light beams meet on the photographic plate.
Virtual reality is used in all of the following areas:
military applications (for example, training to use a new tank)
education (for example, looking inside an ancient building as part of a history lesson)
healthcare (for example, as a diagnostic tool)
entertainment (for example, games Where gloves, goggles or helmets are worn to give realism to the scenario and even to give images or sound to make it seem very real)
fashion (for example, to do fashion shows before doing the real thing to see the clothes on people, check out the venue and so on)
heritage (for example, showing monuments such as Stonehenge)
business (for example, training courses and role~playing scenarios for staff)
real estate (for example, allowing people to ‘look around’ houses that are for sale)
engineering (for example, seeing how new designs will look)
sport (for example, a golfer trying to improve their swing can use this technology and get feedback to improve their game)
m d'a (for example, special effects in films such as The Matrix)
i nt‘fic Visu isation for example, looking at molecular structures in