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Copy of Volcanoes


Ehtisham Khan

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Volcanoes

Volcanoes A presentation by
Akash, Ehtisham and Omar How are volcanoes formed? Types of eruptions. Impact on Climate Where are volcanoes mostly found? Introduction to Volcanoes Volcanoes are vents that expel different substances into air
Magma and lots of gas builds up that make it erupt
Mountain-like mounds are what remains after material spewed
Volcanoes are made of tectonic plaes that crashed into each other Dormant, active and extinct volcanoes Active volcanoes: Still erupting or has had a recent eruption
Dormant volcano: Volcano that is not erupting but there is a likely chance of future eruption.
Extinct volcanoes: Not had a eruption for a long time, and not expected to. Earth's Layers There are 4 layers:

very thin
can be cold
floats on the mantle below it

Lithosphere and Asthenosphere
Lithosphere is the hard part of the earths surface
asthenosphere is the layer below the lithosphere


biggest layer
hot dense and thick Types of Volcanoes Hazards of Volcanoes Cinders ( when lava solidifies and cools)

Pahoehoe: When gases and magma dissolve, violently erupts.

A,a: Destroys everything in path, breaks into pieces called clinker

Block: Slow, becomes smooth and block like

Sheet Lava: Very fast, pools in low lying areas Types of lava flows Due to the greenhouse effect and the haze effect global climates can increase or decrease after a volcanic eruption Effusive
Hawaiian Plate tectonics: Large pieces of rock that make up the earth’s crust

Volcanic vent: An opening, crack or rupture on the earth’s surface that allows volcanic fragments to escape

Magma: Molten rock or material flowing below the earth’s crust

Volcanic Trench: a trench or ridge created due to the collision of tectonic plates.

Lava Flow: Stream of molten lava.

Volcanic Eruption: Sudden emission of volcanic material from a volcano or fissure.

Basalt lava: Molten basalt.

Clinker: shattered, sharp pieces of cooled magma.

Viscosity: The thickness of an object and its resistance to flow.

Pressure: physical force that is continually exerted on or against an object

Slope: How steep something is.

Pumice: light volcanic rock created when a gas-rich lava solidifies rapidly.

Eruptive columns: cloud of ash spewed during a volcanic eruption.

Bombs: molten rock larger than 6.4cm.

Temphra: lava that cools and hardens in the air and falls as ash and rock fragments.

Silica: main component of magma and the more silica there is the more viscous the magma is.

Nuée ardente: large amount of hot gas and other volcanic fragments

Central vents: opening at earth’s surface and forms a volcanic conduit.

Fissures: long narrow opening or crack on the earth’s surface on the flanks of a volcano.

Fire fountains: eruption of molten lava from a volcanic vent

Scoria: cindery fragments of cool lava.

Splatters: molten rock

Lava Lake: large amounts of lava contained in a depression, crater or volcanic vent

Hot spots: An area with a large amount of volcanic activity.

Coulees: short and steep lava domes.

Dikes: thin layer of volcanic rock

Calderas: remains of a volcano that are basin shaped and steep walled depressions in the ground. Vocabulary Minerals found in volcanoes

Aluminum ore called bauxite is found in weathered volcanoes. Aluminum has a wide range if common uses


Deposits of nickel sulfide are found in ancient volcanic terranes. This ore is associated with a lava flow called komatites.

Gold formation is associated with volcanoes iris hosted in volcanic rock. These diamond deposits are most common: greenstone belts, porphyry deposits and epithermal deposits. Gold is a rare metal and is highly valuable.

Diamonds are crystalline and the hardest known substance. They are brought to the surface by a magma called kimberlite. Kimberlite is gas rich and is estimated to be approximately 200 km deep which is pretty far compared to other volcanoes. Mount Kilimanjaro is dormant Mauna loa is an active volcano CASE STUDY: MOUNT VESUVIUS, POMPEII This volcanoes killed up to 25,000 people. When Vesuvius had an almighty eruption in AD79, it buried the town of Pompeii, as well as devastating other villages. The eruption length, which was 20 mile tall spout of lava and rock, surged for over 20 hours with several small breaks. Since then, the volcano has erupted many times, most recently in 1944, when villages were destroyed. Sources Earth’s Layers from http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Ea rths_layers/Earths m layers7.html
Volcanic formation from http://www.ehow.com/info_8467585_convection-currents-volcanoes.html

Volcanic formation from http://www.familyonbikes.org/educate/lessons/volcanoes.htm

Types of lava from http://www.familyonbikes.org/educate/lessons/craters.htm

Types of lava flows from http://www.familyonbikes.org/educate/lessons/lava_flows.htm

Effusive and explosive eruptions from http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/pid/3599;jsessionid=EA2 5BB04ED5B037F2DEBEE8E605FC69B

Effusive, pyroclastic and pilinian eruptions from http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0311160 /lavalake.htm

Strombolian eruptions from http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/Strombolian .html

Vulcanian eruptions from http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/Vulcanian.html

Pélean/Nuée Ardente and Hawaiian eruptions from http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/volcanoes /erupts.pelean.php

Fissure volcanoes from http://my.opera.com/nielsol/blog/2007/02/12/fissure-volcanoes

Shield, dome, ash-cinder, and composite volcanoes from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volc/type s.html

Caldera volcanoes from http://www.extremescience.com/calderas.htm

What volcanoes are from http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natura l-disasters/volcano-profile/

Minerals found in volcanoes from http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/book/export/html/170 and http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/LivingWith/PlusSide/mineral_resources.html

Impacts of volcanoes and volcanic hazards from http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/volca noes/effects.php

Affect on climate from http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/climate_effects.html and http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/volcanoes/vclimate.html

http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Earths_layers/Picture2.gif MODEL Pyroclastic Flow Volcanic Gas Volcanic Ash Lahars Volcanic Gas Lava Relation to culture Volcanoes have been a part of many different cultures. For example, Romans believed in Vulcan the god of fire. The greeks believed in Hephaestus, the god of fire and forge. The Native Americans believed in Llao and Skell. Also, Hawaii believed in the god Pele. Hawaii is the most commonly known culture that is associated with volcanoes.
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