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Green Chemistry

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by

Umayma Abdiwahab

on 27 August 2014

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Transcript of Green Chemistry

Green Chemistry
"So, what exactly is Green Chemistry?"
Green Chemistry is the great
idea of utilizing a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the
design
,
manufacture
and
application
of chemical products.
"What are some environmental impacts?"
The 12 Principles of green chemistry:
Environmental Impacts/hazards

Prevention of 875 million kilos of hazardous Waste
900 railroad tank cars or
17.7 km long train
Preventing 25 million kilograms of CO2 Emissions
6000 cars
"Why is Green Chemistry even necessary?"
<http://www.sembabio.com/images/green_chem.png>
Prevent waste
Design safer chemicals and products
Design less hazardous chemical syntheses
Use renewable feedstocks
Use catalysts, not stoichiometric reagents
Avoid chemical derivatives
Maximize atom economy
Use safer solvents and reaction conditions
Increase energy efficiency
Design chemicals and products to degrade after use
Analyze in real time to prevent pollution
Minimize the potential for accidents
But many of those reactions result in huge amounts of waste and toxic byproducts.
Works Cited
Anastas, P. T. and Warner, J. C. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press: New York, 1998, p. 30. By permission of Oxford University Press.
BioGreen. “Going Green 2Day.” BioGreen. Web. 2008. <http://www.goinggreen2day.com/>
Engler, Rich. “Green Chemistry: Basic Information “ EPA Web. 18 June. 2012. <http://www.epa.gov/greenchemistry/pubs/basic_info.html>
Francis, David. “Why do Death Rates Decline?” The National Bureau of Economic Research. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nber.org/digest/mar02/w8556.html>
Matus, Kira. “Green Chemistry at a Glance“ ACS Chemistry for Life. Web. 10 Nov. 2012. <http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/ >
UO. “Organic and Beyond.” Green Chemistry at the University of Oregon. Web. 2012. <http://greenchem.uoregon.edu/>

1
25
50
75
100
Toxic
Waste
Valuable Product
Compare Valuable Product to Toxic Waste Produced
Environmental Benefits
Health Benefits
Leads to...
<http://www.marvistavet.com/html/ibuprofen_toxicity.html>
Ibuprofen
Re-patented in 1993
Increase Profit
Lower Cost
Less Waste
Go Green!
http://www.tumblr.com/tagged/reusable-shopping-bag
<http://www.ecosherpa.com/images/green-works.jpg>
<http://www.diningchicago.com/blog/2010/05/25/go-green-get-a-discount/>
PRINCIPLE #1 POLLUTION PREVENTION
It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed
setraline- active ingredient in zoloft
used in treatment of depression
first process to produce setraline
: 979L solvents (per kg)
5 SOLVENTS : ethanol, ethyl acetate, thf, hexane, and toluene
new microwave mediated synthesis uses only 256l of solvents per kg
USED ONLY 3 SOLVENTS ( ETHANOL, ETHYL ACETATE AND METHANOL.


Did you know that 97% of all products and industrial processes require a chemical reaction?
Principle#3
Less hazardo

PRINCIPLE 2: ATOM ECONOMY
The second principle of green chemistry is stated as the “atom economy” of a reaction. The atom economy was founded by Barry Trost and it simply asks the question “what atoms of the reactants are incorporated into the final desired product(s) and what atoms are wasted?”
Principle 9: use of catalytic raegents
Catalysis is a vital concept of green chemistry. The goal of principle 9 is minimizing or preferably eliminating the waste produced in the manufacture of chemicals and other allied products that involve a chemical process. The use of catalytic reagents is more superior to the use of stoichiometric reagents.
Principle 10: Design for degradation
The design of chemical products to breakdown processed materials into innocuous substances to prevent them from accumulating to the environment which may persist in causing harm to the nature and the animals.


PRINCIPLE 3: Design less hazardous chemical synthesis
methods should be designed that use or generate substances with little or no toxicity to humans and the environment.

principle 4
Designing Safer Chemicals
Chemical products should be designed to preserve efficacy of tHE function while reducing toxicity.


THE GOAL IS MAKING SAFE-NON TOXIC
CHEMICALS.
PRINCIPLE 7
Whenever possible, chemical transformations should be designed to utilize raw materials and feedstocks that are renewable. Examples of renewable feedstocks include agricultural products or the wastes of other processes. Examples of depleting feedstocks include raw materials that are mined or generated from fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas or coal).
PRINCIPLE 8
Reduce chemical derivatives
. Unnecessary derivatisation, should be minimised or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste. Synthetic transformations that are more selective will eliminate or reduce the need for protecting groups. In addition, alternative synthetic sequences may eliminate the need to transform functional groups in the presence of other sensitive functionality.
Chemicals that are less hazardous to human health and the environment are:
• Less toxic to organisms
• Less damaging to ecosystems
• Not persistent or bioaccumulative in organisms or the environment
• Inherently safer to handle and use because they are not flammable or explosive

Principle 12
Inherently safer chemistry for accident prevention
One way to minimise the potential for chemical accidents is to choose reagents and solvents that minimise the potential for explosions, fires and accidental release. Risks associated with these types of accidents can sometimes be reduced by altering the form (solid, liquid, gas) or composition of the reagents. Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimise the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions and fires.
When a reaction is carried out in an industry, we are normally interested in one of the products, other products are sometimes waste
Atom economy shows the amount of product that is useful as a percentage of all the products formed,
the higher the atom economy the less waste produced
Sustainable development
environmental
economic
Leila Cardosa Teruya. (2003) EN Artles "Green Chemistry"-the twelve principles of green chemistry and its insertion in the teaching and rearch Activities available: http://sinuelorural.com.br/index.php/en/articles/123-green-chemistry-the-12-principles-of-green-chemistry-and-its-insertion-in-the-teaching-and-research-activities.Last accessed 19/08/14
jims jones (april 22 2014) climate change and green chemistry technologies. available http://blog.epa.gov/epaconnect/2014/04/climate-change-and-green-chemistry-technologies/. Last accessed 19/08/14.
What is the atom economy? august 7, 2013, "the fuse school" youtube.
APPLICATION OF GREEN CHEMISTRY TO SOLVE A PROBLEM


a THREAT CAN BE ELIMINATED BY APPLYING GREEN CHEMISTRY APPLYING SAFE RAW MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION PROCESSES
aDIPIC ACID- PRODUCTION OF NYLON POLYURETHANES,LUBRICANTS AND PLASTICISERS
BENZENE- A STANDARD(TOXIC) SUBSTRATE NEEDED FOR THE PRODUCTION OF THE ADIPIC ACID
CHEMISTS HAVE DEVELOPED GREEN SYNTHESIS OF ADIPIC ACID BY USING A LESS TOXIC SUBSTRATE.
PRODUCTION OF ACID(BY GLUCOSE CONVERTED INTO ADIPTIC ACID BY AN ENZYME DISCOVERED IN BACTERIA) GUARDS THE WORKERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT FROM EXPOSURE TO HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS
THEREFORE GREEN CHEMISTRY PRINCIPLE 3 IS APPLIED!
organochlorines
these compounds are capable of damaging liver, , reproductive system of adults,
when they are burned, more toxic dioxins are formed
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)
WORKS CITED
Planet agenda, "harmful chemicals to our environment", web, http://www.planetagenda.com/chemicals.htm
K . Sato, M .Aoki , R.A .Nayori , “Green
Route to Adipic Acid”, Science, 281, 1646
(1998).
B.M.Trost, Atom economy—A challenge for
organic synthesis: Homogeneous catalysis
leads the way. Angew Chem Int Ed., 34, 259
(1995)
Green Chemistry Network (n.d.) Atom Efficiency PowerPoint presentation. Available athttp://www.chemsoc.org/pdf/gcn/atomeff.ppt. Accessed 17 August 2014
"Basic Information". Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). US EPA.

Redesign of Setraline process
Setraline- active ingrediant in Zoloft
. combined process
. double yield
. ethanol replaced CH2CL2, THF, toluene and hexane
. eliminated use of 140 metric tons/year TiCl4
Eliminated 150 metric tons/year 35% HCL
POLYCARBONATE SYNTHESIS:PHOSGENE PROCESS
DTTE
EXAMPLE OF DESIGNING HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS
The 5th principle of green chemistry states that substances such as solvents and separation agents should be made less harmful when being used and usage of such substances should be reduced.
Dangerous solvents and separation agents
• Are flammable, volatile and explosive therefore it concerns safety issues.
• Major contributors to toxicity
Less toxic, flammable and explosive solvents should replace dangerous solvents. Solvents that have the least negative impact on the environment should be maximized.
• Renewable raw materials should be used in order to protect animals on top of food chains from being affected by the chemicals released in to environment without proper disposal.
• Industrial solvents are used by refineries and are deposited in oil spills. They are not environmentally safe and cause harm to animals within the environment of oil spill. to protect the habitat of animals and keeping them safe from injuries, this principle is put in place.

6th principle of green chemistry: design for energy efficiency
Minimize the energy requirements of chemical processes and conduct synthetic methods at ambient temperature and pressure if possible.
Most of the energy is used in processes like
• Solvent removal
• Replacing a solvent
• To isolate the desired product

In order to complete chemical reactions and procedures, several electrical machines are used. This principle aims to minimise both environmental and economic impacts through using energy efficiently.















11th principle of green chemistry:

Real-time Analysis for Pollution Prevention
Develop analytical methodologies needed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances.

• Encouraging the use of products and processes that wouldn’t add on to the pollution levels.
• Monitoring of chemical processes is required to prevent the production of harmful wastes. And to detect the following:
-Changes in temperature or pH
-Poisoning of catalysts
Full-time analysis is required in order to prevent major incidents from occurring.


Example-oil spills
• Industrial solvents are used by refineries and are deposited in to environment through oil spills. They are not environmentally safe and cause harm to animals within the environment of oil spill. to protect the habitat of animals and keeping them safe from injuries, this principle is put in place
• Oil spills and can have a great impact as it can cause
1. Deaths among sea life or affecting the sea life in the long term.
2. Habitats of sea life can be destroyed permanently
3. The desalination plant is closed as water is contaminated.
4. It results in economic loss
5. Aquaculture stocks are ruined

5. Aquaculture stocks are ruined

The 5th principle of green chemistry is applied by refineries to reduce the risk of oil spills and the impact it has on the environment.
The feathers of birds lose its insulating ability and the water repelling ability. Causing damage to them physically and if ingested it can kill them.




Bayer cropscience
. brought new fungicide for fruits and vegetables developed from naturally occuring bacteria

E FACTOR
The E factor, is the actual amount of waste produced in the process, defined as everything but the desired product.
A higher E factor means more waste and, consequently, greater negative environmental impact.
Flammable and carcinogenic solvents such as tetrachloromethane and perchloroethylacetate: used as dry cleaning solvents.
Supercritical COZ: fluid with physical properties between those of liquid and gaseous CO2,
can be used as a safer alternative.
reduces toxicity to the environment.
PCB's can enter the air by evaporation from both soil and water. In air, PCB's can be carried long distances and have been found far away from where it was initially released, therefore PCB's are found all over the world.

How can you still be exposed to PCB's?
Old electrical devices such as refrigerators and TV's may leak PCB's.
When they get hot during operation, small amounts of PCB's may leak into the air and raise the level of PCB's in indoor air.
Breathing contaminated air
Consuming contaminated food
(FISH MAY BE CONTAMINATED WITH PCB'S)
. PCB (Poly chlorinated Biphenyls)
Group of synthetic organic chemicals used in a variety of electrical appliances before the 80's Banned late 1970's due to the numerous harmful effects
Either oily liquids or solids and are colourless to light yellow.
May exist as vapour in the air
PCB's entered air, water, soil during their manufacture and use before 1977.
Wastes that contained PCB's were generated, and those wastes were often placed in landfills.
PCB's also entered the environment from accidental spills and leaks during the transport of the chemicals, or from leaks of products containing PCB's
PCB's today can be released into the environment from poorly maintained hazardous waste sites that contain PCB's
leaks or releases from electrical containing PCB's
PCB's may be released into the environment by the burning of some wastes in municipal and industrial incinerators.
PCB's do not break down readily and therefore remain in the environment for long periods of times

GREEN CHEM PRINCIPLES STRIVES TO:
produce goods needed by society that are not harmful to the environment
Replace foil fuels or other non-renewable resources by renewable ones.
urge people to recycle goods produced by society
processes used to manufacture products that either produce no wastes that are recyclable.
Exposure to PCB's include the following health detriments on humans:
Cancer (PCB is carcinogenic)
Irritation of nose and lungs
Depression
Fatigue
Pigmentation disturbances
Liver damage
Pollution Due to PCB's
Belgium: 1999, PCBs were found in chicken and eggs
Japan, 2013: 22 rusted gallons of barrels with Dow Chemical Company labels were found under land currently used as a soccer field.
City government tested the barrels to analyse its contents.
22 samples from the barrels found PCB's in 11 of the 22 samples and found that the soil and water was contaminated with PCB's
United Kingdom:
Manufactured PCB's at its chemical plant in Newport, South Wales.
During this period, waste matter, including PCB's from Newport site was dumped at a disused quarry west of Cardiff.
It continues to be released in waste water discharges.
Example-oil spills
• Industrial solvents are used by refineries and are deposited in to environment through oil spills. They are not environmentally safe and cause harm to animals within the environment of oil spill. to protect the habitat of animals and keeping them safe from injuries, this principle is put in place
• Oil spills and can have a great impact as it can cause
1. Deaths among sea life or affecting the sea life in the long term.
2. Habitats of sea life can be destroyed permanently
3. The desalination plant is closed as water is contaminated.
4. It results in economic loss
5. Aquaculture stocks are ruined

• Biofuel- Biodiesel is a fuel made from renewable resources such as vegetable oils. Bioethanol is used as a replacement for gasoline and biodiesel is used as a replacement for diesel.


• Use of dry cleaning- doesn’t produce waste, conserves water. Common solvent used in dry cleaning is tetrachloroethene instead of perchloroethene. Perchloroethene is a threat to the human life- it can be ingested or inhaled and is stored in fat tissues.
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