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introduction to N302

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by

Kathy Wilkinson

on 4 December 2013

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Transcript of introduction to N302

Layering & Positioning
Characteristics of Disease
Principles of Diagnosis
Pathogenesis
(how disease develops)
2.
3.
4.
Classifications of Disease
The History! (current illness, PMH, family, social, ROS)
Diagnostic Tests
Define common terms used to describe disease: lesions, organic and functional disease, symptomatic and asymptomatic disease, etiology, and pathogenesis

List major categories of human disease
Explain a practitioner's approach to making diagnoses and deciding on treatment
Describe various diagnostic tests and procedures that help practitioners
Principles of Diagnosis.
General Concepts of Disease:
Learning Objectives
MRI
Clinical Laboratory Tests
Endoscopy
X-rays
CT Scan
Tests of electrical activity
Laparascopy
PET Scan
Histologic exams
Ultrasound
Cytologic exams
Radioisotope Studies
Pathophysiology
LESION
ORGANIC
associated with
structural changes
FUNCTIONAL - not associated with structural changes
VS
ETIOLOGY (the cause)
1.
Congenital and hereditary diseases
hemophilia
Inflammatory diseases
pneumonia
Degenerative diseases
arthritis
Metabolic diseases
diabetes
Neoplastic diseases
benign or malignant tumors
The Physical Examination
Treatment
A young woman has a benign growth of cells on her thymus. This patient's condition would be classified as

an infectious disease
an inflammation
a fungus
a neoplastic disease
DISEASE - any distrubance of the structure
or function of the body
DIAGNOSIS - Determining the nature
and cause of the illness
PROGNOSIS - probable outcome; outlook
for recovery
Gross examination - with the naked eye
Histologic - with a microscope
A disease in which no morphologic abnormalities can be identified, despite a disruption of bodily function, is a/an

Organic Disease
Functional Disease
Neoplastic Disease
All of the above
Examining diseased tissue with the naked eye is called a ________ examination.

gross
histological
physical
metabolic
2.
3.
4.
A disease caused by chromosomal damage at birth would be classified as:

congenital
inflammatory
degenerative
metabolic
neoplastic
Metabolic diseases are characterized by a degeneration of
various parts of the body.

TRUE
FALSE
Welcome to Nursing 302
Kathy Wilkinson, MSN, RN
A physician examines a patient and determines that the origin of the patient's condition was a giardia infection caused by drinking contaminated water. The physician's evaluation is called a

diagnosis
prognosis
etiology
pathology
A diagnostic test that measures an organ or system's uptake and excretion through the use of a radioactive material is which type of test?

endoscopy
radioisotope
cytologic
positron emission tomography

esophagoscopes, gastroscopes, cystoscopes, and sigmoidoscopes are all tools used for which type of examination?

ultrasound
electrical activity
radioisotope
endoscopy
A computed tomographic scan is a type of x-ray machine

TRUE
FALSE


The major clinical use of PET scans today is to examine
the:

liver
brain
kidneys
lungs
An MRI scan uses a magnetic field to align hydrogen protons within the water that naturally composes the patient's tissues.

TRUE
FALSE


Common types of cytologic and histologic examinations include:

pap smear
biopsy
CT scan
EEG
A and B

3.
Screening
Detects early asymptomatic disease amenable to treatment, resulting in hopeful preventing or minimizing late stage organ damage.
To be successful:
1. significant # in group at
risk
2. suitable (relatively
inexpensive)
3. early ID and treatment
will benefit health
Full transcript