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The Deep Ocean
Transcript of The Deep Ocean
The ocean is one of the hardest places to explore. The thing that keeps the marine biologists from exploring the ocean is the pressure and depths. The first instrument used for deep-sea investigation was the sounding weight, used by British explorer Sir James Clark Ross. With this instrument, he reached depths of 3,700 in 1840, there he took samples of the sea bed. Before this there was a lot of planning. The marine investigators were very worried about the extreme pressures of the ocean. Just going down 33feet the pressure would increase by 14.5 pounds.
The Underwater Workshop
The Deep Ocean
Exploring the Deep
A Norweign scientist was the first to get the depths of the ocean in 1864. He took samples of Crinoid which are marine mammal's that make up the class of Crinodea. Which comes from the greek word Krinon "a lilly". They live both in shallow water and in depths as great as 6000m. In 1872 the British government sent out ships called the HMS challenger to discover more Crinoid. With a successful return after 4 years they found 4,417 new species of marine organisms.
Benthic not Pelagic
Oceans are divided into two realms. The pelagic zone and Benthic Zone. The pelagic zone has open water and swimming and floating organisms thrive in it. The deep ocean is the Benthic zone.
Lets Go On An Adventure
Canadian Deep Sea Diver
James Cameron is a Canadian film director
and editor. He has made many movies including: Titanic and Avatar. Not only is he accomplished in film but he is also an accomplished deep sea diver. On March 26th 2012 he reached the bottom of Mariana trench. In the submarine deep sea Challenger. Mariana Trench is the deepest area of the ocean. James Cameron is the first person to make the decent alone and is the third person to make it to the bottom of Mariana Trench.
Deep Sea Life
Oceans take the world by Storm
Many different natural disasters can occur in the oceans. including hurricanes. one of the most tragic and notable hurricanes being hurricane Sandy. in 2012 the Atlantic Ocean swept up and left 200,oo0 people in Dominican Republic homeless. Hurricane Sandy is known in record as the biggest hurricane ever to hit the Atlantic. Sandy started as a tropical wave in the Western Caribbean sea. On October 22nd. Within six hours Hurricane Sandy had moved northward to Greater Antilles and gradually got bigger. On October 24th Sandy reached Kingston Jamaica then the Caribbean sea became stronger. On October 25th Sandy hit Cuba. Sandy then moved to the Bahamas. On October 27th the storm weakened and became a tropical storm. On October 29th Sandy was back. Sandy curved North-west then moved ashore near New Jersey. Sandy's outer bands flooded Hatti killing 54. In the end Hurricane sandy killed 67 people and caused 100 million dollars worth of damage in Jamaica and Ontario. In Cuba There was 2 billion dollars worth of damage. That is how one hurricane and two oceans can effect 7 and more countries in counting.
In general, modern scientific deep-sea exploration started when French scientist named Pierre Simon De Laplace experimented by observing the tidal movements off of the Brazilian and African coasts. To find out the average depth of the Atlantic ocean. The conclusion of his investigation was that the depths of the Atlantic Ocean are 3,962 metres deep. His theory later proved quite accurate. By soundings and measurement With the demand for submarine cables installment sounding was needed and the first investigation of the bottom of the sea started.
Pierre Simon De Laplace
The Deep Sea Challenger
There is so much salt in the oceans that if you covered the Earth with all the salt from the oceans there would be 500 feet of salt covering the earth.
Ocean life changes the deeper you go into the ocean. Fish colours change. In shallower water the fish are usually brightly coloured and as you go deeper fish are usually grey or silver and other light colours. Fish living in the very deep ocean often have their own lights. The Pacific Ocean is the biggest and deepest ocean in the world. The red Sea has the saltiest water because of the large salt quantity in the red ocean nothing can survive living in it and people can remain afloat without even trying. The Indian ocean is the warmest ocean. The meaning of Pacific is "peaceful" People named the Pacific ocean Pacific because it was such a calm ocean.
Sea life in the deep ocean is very neat to look at but can also be very venomous! like the Striped Surgeonfish. These indigo striped fish can definitely catch your eye, but is very venomous. This fish lives in the Pacific Ocean and can injure 50,000 people each year. Alone the
Pacific Ocean has 1,200 venomous fish. But these fish are also very good as they can help make medicine. Deep sea corals, sponges and other habitat- forming organisms provide protection from currents and predators, nurseries for young fish, and feeding , breeding, and spawning for hundreds of thousands of species. Did you know half of the species on earth live in the ocean. The biggest fish populations right now are Crabs, Shrimp, Cod, Armorhead, Jacks, Snappers, and Orange Roughy's and they can live for up to 150 years. Did you know over 850 species were recently found on sea-mounts (submarine mountain) in the Tasman and Coral Seas. These are some of the most beautiful and venomous sea creatures and plants.
The Mariana Trench is the deepest part in all the oceans. The trench is 2,500 kilometers long and has an average width of 69 kilometers. It reaches depths of 10.911KM. There is a small slot-shaped in it's floor, at it's southern end, although some say the deepest point of the trench is at it's southern end with 11.03 km deep. The trench is located in the western pacific ocean, East of the Mariana Islands. At the bottom of Marianas Trench the pressure is 1,086 bars, that is over 1000 times the standard atmospheric pressure at normal sea. At this pressure the density of the water increases 4.96% making 95 litres of the water under the deep contain the same mass as 100 litres at the surface. The temperature at the bottom of the trench is 1 to 4 degrees C. Did you know the Mariana Trench was named after and to honor spanish queen Mariana of Austria. Mariana was born on December 22,1634.she ruled from October 7th, 1649 to September 17th 1665. She passed away on May 16th 1696 from Breast Cancer.
Paragraph information Referencing
Retrieved in January 2014
Retrieved in January 2014
Thanks for Watching!
This prezi and video was made by: Allie, Sireena, Chloe, Kennedy,and Cutie.
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Hope you enjoyed the adventure!