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Transcript of AS Psychology
for revising, resits, and Unit 4 synoptic.... Psychodynamics Social Learning Biological Cognitive Psychology aims to explain both mental events and behaviours. It consists of various bodies of knowledge and research with different views as to the causes of behaviours. If we want to explain an event from a psychological point of view, we have to be able to move from one type of explanation to another to get the complete picture. The AS course aims to give you a 'feel' for the different types of explanation available In order to do the AS exam, you need to know the main concepts used by each approach, the evidence that supports it, and the methodology the approach uses so click round this presentation in your own time, using your notes/textbook to fill in the details This presentation aims to give you an overview of what this is all about, so you start to see how it fits together, and the similarities and differences between the approaches. assumes that behaviours result from unconscious motivations
Key researcher = Freud thought the mind consists of 3 'levels
conscious though we develop our personalities through 5 invariant stages:
Oral - birth - 18 months - Id
Anal - around 2 yrs - Ego
Phallic - around 5 yrs - Superego
By this stage the personality is fully formed, but psycho-sexual development continues
Latency - acquisition of knowledge
Genital - puberty - heterosexual functioning/relationships Normal development depends on the successful resolution of conflicts at each stage. However, individuals can get fixated (stuck) or regress to earlier stages, resulting in abnormal patterns of behaviour in later life.
FOR THE EXAM - make sure you know some of these fixation characteristics - at least one for each stage The critical stage is the Phallic stage, during which the child develops the Superego - gender appropriate behaviour and our moral codes come as part of the Superego, so you must know how this happens Sequence of events in Phallic stage - Oedipus/Electra Complex
sexual feelings for opp sex parent
fear of same sex parent - rival/punisher
anxiety - castration anxiety/penis envy
Identification with same sex parent
adopting behaviours of same sex adult - will be gender appropriate/ moral Evidence that supports this theory:
LIttle Hans - horse phobia This is one of the studies in detail - look this up, make sure you can describe it in terms of aims/methods.results/conclusions, not just narrating the story.
You also need to be able to evaluate this study you need the 'CRAVE' bit of our mnemonnic....
Write fully developed sentences to explain exactly what you mean, eg, "One strength of the Little Hans study is that the evidence has high reliablity because Freud collected data from various sources, including Little Hans himself, his parents, observation of his behaviours, dreams etc, and all these sources suggest a consistent story. For a full evaluation you need at least 4 sentences:-
strength or weakness
Comparison To evaluate a study, The other study in detail:
Again make sure you can describe this in terms of aims/procedure/results/conclusions
Remember that we can use this study to support Freudian theory as Dibs seemed to be affected by unconscious anxieties, but Axline (his therapist) did not interpret his behaviour
Evaluate this study in a similar way to Little Hans. Content: Studies in detail Methods Methods most often used by Psychodynamics = CASE STUDIES (eg Hans/Dibs; clinical cases)
Freud's interest is the workings of the unconscious, and what makes us all unique, this can only be studied by looking in detail at individuals
Freud believed that we are different from other animal species, so animal studies tell us nothing about humans.
HINT: Try to look for the linkages between the type of theory and the type of methodology each approach uses - this can short-cut your learning...... Evaluating case studies in general:
All approaches use case studies, so don't dismiss them!!
can track developmental change
single cases often falsify theories
unique/unusual - problems of generalisation
investigators often get involved with ppts, so lose objectivity Psychodynamic case studies have all the advantages/disadvantages of case studies in general, but have added problems because of the methods used to collect the data, eg
This can lead to
ppts being lead/over-interpretation
resulting in problems of validity
They are generally clinical case studies, ie ppts have a mental health issue, so may not represent 'normals' Practical The practical for this approach was a CORRELATION
ie "There will be a positive correlation between the strictness of parenting before the age of 5 and tidiness as a personality characteristic of early adulthood (both variables being measured by self-report from 17 year olds on a 10-point rating scale) Make sure you know THE DETAILS of how we did this
Aim (demonstrate early parenting affects later personality characteristics, as suggested by Freudian theory)
Results - inc Spearman
At least one problem that occured in the planning/carrying out of the study (validity of retrospective data maybe??)
How that problem could have been overcome (eg asking parents to rate strictness/tidiness; bring in photos of bedroom and have them judged for neatness by independent rater? Make sure you know the advantages/disadvantages of correlational techniques in general:
Scattergraphs can show relationships that would otherwise be difficult to spot
all data collected from same particpants (= repeated measures) so no problems re indiv diffs
Does not prove cause and effect (often intrepted as such!!)
cannot extrapolate beyond the data/context of study
only appropropiate for linear relationships assumes behaviour has physical causes genes/DNA hormones neurotransmitters Physiological:
brain structure/function brain lateralisation dopamine testosterone XX v XY v XXY v XO? Central Nervous system synapse/receptors Methodology = extent to which each hemisphere of the brain is involved in different activities males - in general, more right brain dominant
esp for visuospatial activity -
males better at maths/map-reading
also creativity? females - in general, use both halves more equally,
larger corpus collosum - better communication between 2 halves
better at language skills, intuition, interpreting body language, empathising
BUT - evidence is contradictory,
difference in structure does not necessarily mean difference in function,
and this is NOT an excuse for sexism - on most performance tests, males and females are more similar than different!! Brain and Spinal cord Spinal cord
transmission of sensory input
transmission of motor commands
processing of information:-
interpretation of inputs
storage of information (memory)
Studies in detail: David Reimer
this includes both Money's early account
and David Reimer's adult testimony
For evaluation see 'Case studies' Prezi NOTE: You can use this study to evaluate learning theories re gender development, because in this case David continued to behave in a masculine way, and eventually reverted to beng male, demonstrating that biology (nature) was dominant over nurturing/reinforcement patterns Gottesman and Shields
Twin study - genetic origins of Schizophrenia NOTE: this study does not prove Sz is genetic (as many students write!!) It demonstrates that there is a genetic component, but the concordance rates are a long way from 100%, so other factors must also be involved. Practical: natural experiment - gender diffs in "Mind in Eyes" test
inc Mann-Whitney U stats Make sure you know THE DETAILS of how you did this
Aim - to test whether there are gender differences in the ability to interpret emotions from eyes (empathising skills)
Results - inc Mann- Whitney
At least one problem that occured in the planning/carrying out of the study (control of sample?)
How that problem could have been overcome (better sampling techniques?) Have an example, know what they do, advantages and disadvantages
for all of the following:-
Twin Studies (Gottesman & Shields)
Animal lab studies
Human lab studies you could try constructing a summary table for this Chemical: Cellular Biological approaches are more 'bitty', because there's lots of different biological explanations - you are expected to know specific details/examples though - remember this appraoch is scientific, so evidence based!!! epigenetic factors (look it up!!) Are transgender operations ethical?
BASED ON EVIDENCE - NOT PERSONAL PREJUDICE!!!
AND - this is really an issue about ethics (not the operations per se) - think about ethical guidelines before you start - most useful - protection from harm/informed consent/issues wrt children
Many gender non-conformists know early in life
If genetically determined - problem is there from birth, and will not change in later life (=NATURE)
Transgender ops more successful/less traumatic if done before puberty
Ops may prevent psychological distress for child (many commit suicide early in life)
Child cannot give informed consent
Learning approaches suggest env influences - child may 'grow out of it'
Surgery may cause harm
SUPPORT ARGUMENT WRT DAVID REIMER Key Issue: Content: Is homophobia a defence mechanism against the fear of being homosexual?
ANSWER FROM EVIDENCE - NOT PERSONAL PREJUDICE!!!
Issue - because we want to know how to prevent homophobic attacks
Homosexuality conflicts with traditional 'maleness'
provokes defence mechanism - reaction formation
resulting in homophobia/violent attacks
EVIDENCE - ADAMS
This suggests the only way to reduce prejudice is to offer personal therapy to homophics on an individual basis
(not essential, but you could compare with 'Social Psych) Key Issue: Content: Content: Content: This approach usually favours experiments - but this is covered elsewhere in the syllabus. Observations fit in here, as we need to make observations to record the results of the experiments......
Animal lab Experiments
Human Lab Eperiments
and ETHICS (agan!) Methodology Methodology Studies in detail: Studies in detail: Studies in detail: Key Issue: Key Issue: Key Issue: Practical: Practical: Practical: really one body of theory here, but used in several different ways - it's all inter-connected!!! sees behaviour as acquired from the environment Classical conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning theory Behaviour learned as association between concurrent events
Evidence - from PAVLOV - dogs/salivation
UCR/UCS/CS/CR - Know the sequence!
Food (UCS) - saliva (UCS)
Food (UCS) + bell (CS) - saliva (UCS)
Bell (CS) - saliva (CR)
Also Extinction (stopping learned response if association weakened)
Spontaneous recovery (previously extinguished response re-appears unexpectedly)
Behaviour learned as association between action (operant) and consequence
Evidence - from SKINNER - rats in boxes (Sniffy!!)
Main emphasis - REINFORCEMENT - makes behaviours MORE likely to happen
Also PUNISHMENTS - make behaviours LESS likely to happen
Puts CC and OC into social context
Evidence - from BANDURA, ROSS and ROSS (human children/video modelling)
Behaviours learned by observation of role models, imitation (specific acts) indentification (general way of behaving in situations not witnessed)
Reinforcment still important, but not essential/obvious
Vicarious reinforcement NOTE: since Bandura did this work, many examples of animals learning socially have been found Note the difference in time sequence between these two conditioning theories Aversion Therapies - pairing undesired behaviour with noxious substance - association learned; desire diminished Systematic desensitisation - extinguishing undesired responses by substituting desirable ones, step-by step
eg relaxation instead of fear Flooding - eg, massive exposure to fear-inducing stimulus without negative consequence - leads to lower anxiety levels, as association with feared outcome is broken Behaviour modification - ignoring undesired behaviours whilst rewarding desired ones (eg Super Nanny!! child no longer rewarded by attention for naughty behaviours; association built between good behaviour and positive consequence) ONE THERAPY WITH EVALUATION REQUIRED FOR AS EXAM Token Economies - RECOMMENDED
USEFUL IN EVERY EXAM!!! Methodology Bandura, Ross and Ross - human lab Xpt Watson and Raynor - inducing a phobia in a 5 year old child (aka Little Albert) NOTE - do not confuse with Little Hans - it's easy -
Hans and Horse
Albert and rAt...... The rise of Ladette behaviour:
TAKE CARE TO USE CONCEPTS FROM LEARNING APPROACH - EASY TO SLIP INTO 'SOCIAL PSYCH'
Issue because it is a socially undesirable behaviour that is increasing; we'd like to reduce/prevent it.....
Drunkenness in females used to be socially unacceptable, and hence was 'punished' by disapproval; social change means there is less threat of disapproval
Celebrities/media figures shown, modelling such behaviours; beocomes associated with positive reinforcements of fame/wealth
Celebrities therefore become vicarious reinforcers, other females think they will be similarly rewarded, therefore more likely to adopt similar pattern of behaviour
Observation: gender diffs in driving Make sure you know THE DETAILS of how you did this
Aim - to test whether there are observable gender differences in a behaviour that has been learned, ie who will be the primary driver for mixed sex couples
Results - inc Chi-squared
At least one problem that occured in the planning/carrying out of the study (inter-observer reliablity?)
How that problem could have been overcome Obedience Prejudice Milgram's (1963) basic study
- voice-feedback condition ONE variation of Milgram's basic study
- eg moving the experiment to a run-down office block in order to test whether location (prestigious university setting) affected obedience rate
47% obedience rate, so Milgram concluded the location was having an effect, but not a large one - suggesting obedience is about the relationship between the people involved Following this, Milgram did a lot of variations in order to test which of the situational factors were having the most effect. You only need to know ONE for the exam. You do need to know that factors such as proximity teacher/learner; and proximity teacher/experimenter did affect obedience rates. Obedience = carrying out an action in direct response to an order from an authority figure Agency Theory Milgram proposed Agency theory to explain why people blindly obey authority figures. You need to know what is meant by:-
This explanation focuses on changes of state of mind within the individual in response to an authority figure As a comparative evaluation point, you could mention Social Power Theory - which explains obedience in terms of power relationships between individuals Ethics Remember ethical codes did not exist when Milgram did his experiments - so he didn't break them!! Mlgram took great care to look after his particiapnts - you should be able to list the ways in which he did this. However, you could say that the experiments would now be considered unethical because..... BPS Ethical Principles
Protection from harm
Deception (lack of!!)
Right to withdraw
Competency Although some aspects of the study could be considered unethical, Milgram also claimed that the results were so important, it was worth it anyway - when assessing ethics, we have to conduct 'cost/benefit analysis' - if the benefits to society outweigh the cost to the participants, we may be able to justify doing unethical investigations Another study from a country other than the USA
We did Meuss and Raaijmakers (1986) Points of difference:
Conducted in Holland
Used psychological harm rather than physical harm
M & R's participants knew they were damaging their 'victims'
M & R achieved higher obedience rates in all the conditions tested (basic; peer rebel; experimenter absent)
Points of similarity:
same relationships between experimenter/participant/'victim'
Same overall pattern of result between conditions
M & R accepted Agency Theory as an explanation
As well as being able to descibe and evaluate this study on its own, you ned to be able to compare it with Milgram's studies Definitions: Prejudice is an attitude (usually negative) towards a group of people, based on limited knowledge of the group
It will consist of
Cognitive aspects - eg stereotype
Affective aspects - ie feelings
Behavioural aspects - eg jokes; discrimination; genocide Stereotyping is a set of ideas about the characteristics of a group, assuming that all members of the group possess the same characteristics Discrimination is treating an individual or group unfairly, based on a prejudiced attitude. It is an example of the behavioural component of prejudiced attitudes Social Identity Theory explains prejudice in terms of social groupings
in group/out group
Social comparision Evidence that supports - Tajfel (1970) - look up the findings so you can use this to evaluate Be able to describe and evaluate:-
Be able to describe, and apply and know the advantages and disadvantages of
opportunity Hofling (1966) Study of obedience in nurses Sherif (1961/88) 'Robbers Cave' study Note that these were both controlled observational studies - know the strengths and limitations of this technique How to reduce prejudiced behaviour that results in violence, such as football violence/race riots
The example we used was the race riots of Cronulla, Sydney, 2005. we can explain the behaviour in terms of Social Identity theory, as above
This suggests that to reduce prejudiced violence we need to break down the perception of in-groups and out-groups This was a survey into prejudiced attitudes
You had your own individual hypothesis here - make sure you know what your alternative and null hypothesis was.
These should be fully operationalised - ie, what were you trying to measure, and how did you measure it. Make sure you know THE DETAILS of what you did
Aim (to investigate prejudiced attitudes - add what you investigated specifically)
Results include some numbers!
HOW TO ANALYSE QUALITATIVE DATA BE LOOKING FOR THEMES
At least one problem that occured in the planning/carrying out of the study (validity of participant answers maybe?? 'political correctness?)
How that problem could have been overcome assumes behaviour arises from the interaction with others
society assumes behaviour is motivated by the unconscious, emotions and early childhood experience assumes behaviour is the result of how we think, ie how we process information coming from both the internal and external environment Levels of Processing model of memory
Craik and Lockhart (1972)
The deeper the level of processing, the longer the memory will be retained Multi-store Model of memory
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968
emphasis on memories as 'things' and how they are stored
STM - limited capacity (7+/-2); limited duration (16s); visual/ acoustic
LTM - unlimited capacity/ duration; visual/acoustic/ semantic coding Memory Forgetting Cue Dependency Theory of forgetting
Context cues support this with evidence!! Displacement OR Trace Decay Godden and Baddeley (1975)
(the divers one!) Peterson and Peterson (1959)
Suppression of rehearsal and role of interference
Duration of STM lab Xpt field Xpt This approach is heavily biased towards laboratory experimental techniques, so make sure you know this methodology, with advantages and disavantages of the various techniques Lab Xpts
Design - repeated measures
- indep groups
- matched pairs
randomisation (NOT haphazard!!)
Be able to evaluate Xpts in terms of
- control of participant variables (design)
- control of situational variables
Demand characteristics Re demand characteristics:-
students always get this wrong - these are the characterisics of the experimental set-up that would tend to elicit particular responses.
This is a problem if it distorts the behaviour of the participants - eg, we might think they are displaying the phenomenon under investigation, when there is no option to do anything else.
How reliable is eye-witness testimony, given that we rely on it for court proceedings? This issue depends on the Theory of Reconstructive Memory, as proposed by Bartlett (1932)
This proposes that memories are not 'things' that are stored, but that we reconstruct our events in the telling of them later, altering our version to fit pre-existing schemas.
Loftus demonstrated that this occurs when eyewitnesses are re-telling events, eg being mislead by questions (Quote findings here)
This suggests that eye-witness testimony is not as reliable as we often assume, and therefore cannot be relied upon in court proceedings without other corroborating evidence You devised your own memory EXPERIMENT by class group - make sure you know what your hypotheses were Make sure you know THE DETAILS of what you did
Aim - be specific about what you were testing for
Results - inc numbers!!
At least one problem that occured in the planning/carrying out of the study (control of extraneous variables?)
How that problem could have been overcome