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Computer History

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by

Lawrence Manzano

on 8 February 2014

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Transcript of Computer History

Computer History
IBM
"
T
H
I
N
K
"
Sign
The

"T
H
I
N
K"

motto was developed by Thomas J. Watson, Sr., three years before he joined the forerunner of today's

I
B
M

in 1914.

By the early 1930s, THINK began to take precedence over other slogans in IBM, and it appeared on signs in IBM plants and offices, and in company publications, calendars and photographs all over the world.
So
ft
wa
re

Apollo
Guidance
Computer
A
p
p
l
e
-

1
Steve Wozniak
, a young American electronics expert, designed the
A
p
p
l
e
-
1
, a single-board computer for hobbyists.
With an order for 50 assembled systems from Mountain View, California computer store "The Byte Shop" in hand, he and best friend
Steve Jobs
started a new company, naming it
A
p
p
l
e

C
o
m
p
u
t
e
r
,

I
n
c
.
5 Major Innovations
(1911)
At an uninspiring sales meeting, Watson interrupted, saying
The trouble with everyone of us is that we don't think enough. We don't get paid for working with our feet — we get paid for working with our heads
.
Watson then wrote
THINK
on the easel.

Astronauts communicated with the computer by punching two-digit codes and the appropriate syntactic category into the display and keyboard unit.
The Apollo Guidance Computer made its debut orbiting the Earth on Apollo 7. A year later, it steered Apollo 11 to the lunar surface.
The
Apollo
Guidance
Computer
(
A
G
C
) was a digital computer produced for the
Apollo

program
that was installed onboard each Apollo Command Module (CM) and Lunar Module (LM).
The
A
G
C
provided computation and electronic interfaces for guidance, navigation, and control of the spacecraft.
(1968)
(1976)
About 200 units were produced and all but 25 were sold during nine or ten months. Unlike other hobbyist computers of its day, which were sold as kits, the Apple I was a fully assembled circuit board containing about 60+ chips.

However, to make a working computer, users still had to add a case, power supply transformers, power switch, ASCII keyboard, and composite video display.
The

Cray

I

(1976)

The Cray-1 was a supercomputer designed, manufactured and marketed by Cray Research.
The first Cray-1 system was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1976 and it went on to become one of the best known and most successful supercomputers in history.
The Cray-1's architect was Seymour Cray
The Cray I made its name as the first commercially successful vector processor. The fastest machine of its day, its speed came partly from its shape, a C, which reduced the length of wires and thus the time signals needed to travel across them.
Project started:

1972
Project completed:

1976
Speed:

166 million floating-point operations per second
Size:

58 cubic feet
Weight:

5,300 lbs.
Technology:

Integrated circuit
Clock rate:

83 million cycles per second
Word length:

64-bit words
Instruction set:

128 instructions
M
ac
in
to
sh
(1984)
At the time, the
M
ac
in
to
sh
was the
f
ir
st

su
cc
es
sful

m
o
u
se-
dr
iv
en

c
om
put
er
with a
gra
ph
ic

u
s
e
r

in
te
rfa
ce
Based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor, the Macintosh included many of the Lisa´s features at a much more affordable price: $2,500.
The Macintosh was introduced by the now-famous US$1.5 million Ridley Scott television commercial,
"
1
98
4"
. The ad used an unnamed heroine to represent the coming of the Macintosh as a means of saving humanity from the "
c
o
n
f
o
r
m
i
t
y
" of
I
B
M
'
s
attempts to dominate the computer industry.
The

A
p
p
l
e

slogan
"
T
h
i
n
k

D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
"
has been widely taken as a response to

I
B
M
'
s

T
H
I
N
K
Th
e
M
S
-
D
O
S
The
MS
-
D
O
S
, established a long partnership between
I
B
M
and Mi
cr
os
oft
, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen had founded only six years earlier.
(1981)
Short for Microsoft Disk Operating System, The MS-DOS is an
operating system for x86-based personal computers.
It was the most commonly used member of the DOS family of
operating systems, and was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s to the mid-1990s,
until it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in particular by various generations of
the Microsoft Windows operating system.
Microsoft
Word
Microsoft
Word

is a word

processor developed by Microsoft

which

was first released in 1983 originally named
Multi-Tool

Word
for Xenix systems.
Unlike most MS-DOS programs at the time, Microsoft Word

was designed to be used with a mouse.
In a marketing blitz, Microsoft distributed 450,000 disks demonstrating its
Word
program in the November issue of PC World magazine.
(19
83)
The first version of Word for Windows was released in 1989. With the release of Windows 3.0 the following year, sales began to pick up and Microsoft soon became the market leader for word processors for IBM PC-compatible computers.
Advertisements depicted the Microsoft Mouse, and described Word as a WYSIWYG, windowed word processor with the ability to
Undo
and display
bold
,
italic
, and
underlined
text, although it could not render fonts.
It was not initially popular, since its user interface was different from the leading word processor at the time, WordStar
Windows
Version 3.0
(
1
9
9
0
)
Compatible with DOS programs, the
first successful
version of Windows finally offered good enough performance to satisfy PC users.

For the new version, Microsoft revamped the interface and created a design that allowed PCs to support large graphical applications for the first time.
It also allowed multiple programs to run simultaneously on its Intel 80386 microprocessor.
Windows 3.0 originated in 1989 when a group of Microsoft programmers independently decided to develop a protected mode Windows as an experiment.
They cobbled together a rough prototype and presented it to company executives, who were impressed enough to approve it as an official project.
Linux
Linux was originally developed as a
FREE
operating system for Intel x86-based personal computers.
It has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system.
It is a leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers and supercomputers.
Designed by Finnish university student Linus Torvalds, Linux was released to several Usenet newsgroups on September 17th, 1991. Almost immediately, enthusiasts began developing and improving Linux, such as adding support for peripherals and improving its stability.
In February 1992, Linux became free software or as its developers preferred to say after 1998— open source. Linux typically incorporated elements of the GNU operating system and became widely used.
References
(1991)
IBM Archives, no author. Think Sign. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/w3v7n
, Feb 4, 2014.
Wikipedia, no author. Think (IBM). Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/3devpfq
, Feb 4, 2014.
Techopinions.com, no author. Innovation. Image 1 retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/l5eg9te
, Feb 4, 2014.
Etypewriter.com, no author. Think. Image 2 retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/q2y9lxh
, Feb 4, 2014.
Computer History Museum, no author. Timeline of Computer History 1968. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/kch7qdd
, Feb 5, 2014.
Wikipedia, no author. Apollo Guidance Computer. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/hmn89
, Feb 5, 2014.
Computer History Museum, no author. Timeline of Computer History 1976. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/kl8px2w
, Feb 5, 2014.
Wikipedia, no author. Apple I. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/y4rsc8
, Feb 5, 2014.
Wikipedia, no author. Cray- 1. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/2hgvrp
, Feb 5, 2014.
References
(Images)
Wordpress, supercomputers2011. Cray 1 install. Image 5 retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/maeae6w
, Feb 5, 2014.
Computer History Museum, no author. Timeline of Computer History 1968. Image 3 retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/kch7qdd
, Feb 5, 2014.
Computer History Museum, no author. Timeline of Computer History 1976. Image 4 retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/kl8px2w
, Feb 5, 2014.
Clker.com, no author. Apple logo. Image 6 (apple logo) retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/ov4masl
, Feb 5, 2014.
Wikipedia, no author. Macintosh. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/zt28r
, Feb 5, 2014.
References
Computer History Museum, no author. Timeline of Computer History 1984. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/owkfjq4
, Feb 5, 2014.
Youtube, Mac History. 1984 Apple's Macintosh Commercial (HD). Video 1 retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/n9anojk
, Feb 5, 2014.
Wordpress, darkshock. MS-DOS logo. Image 8 retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/kmpu9nb
, Feb 6, 2014.
Computer History Museum, no author. Timeline of Computer History 1981. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/lxgyab
, Feb 6, 2014.
Wikipedia, no author. MS-DOS. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/jvmgk
, Feb 6, 2014.
Racunalniske-novice.com, no author. Microsoft Word logo. Image 9 retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/n2apz3r
, Feb 6, 2014.
Image 1
Image 2
Image 3
Image 4
Image 5
Video 1
Skypathonline.net, no author. Software. Image 7 retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/lmdcqlp
, Feb 6, 2014.
Computer History Museum, no author. Timeline of Computer History 1983. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/pggjj94
, Feb 6, 2014.
Wikipedia, no author. Microsoft Word. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/ohdb4cr
, Feb 6, 2014.
Image 7
Image 6
Image 8
Image 9
Image 10
Image 11
Image 12
Image 13
Computer History Museum, no author. Timeline of Computer History 1990. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/qg6bpny
, Feb 6, 2014.
Wikipedia, no author. Windows 3.0. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/y3ut9w
, Feb 6, 2014.
References
Static1.wikia.nocookie.net, no author. Windows logo. Image 10 (Windows logo) retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/okprpzy
,
Feb 6, 2014.
(Images)
Wikipedia, no author. Windows 3.0 workspace. Image 11 retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/6qxw7q
, Feb 6, 2014.
Computer History Museum, no author. Timeline of Computer History 1991. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/ow39tsf
, Feb 6, 2014.
static2.wikia.nocookie.net, no author. Linux logo. Image 12 (Linux logo) retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/nwnp2ob
, Feb 6, 2014.
Wikipedia, no author. Linux kernel. Image 13 retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/lejj3xx
, Feb 6, 2014.
Wikipedia, no author. Linux. Retrieved from
http://tinyurl.com/3lxxf
, Feb 6, 2014.
(Facts)
(Facts)
By: Lawrence Manzano
Full transcript