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Hispanic Parents & the Schools
Transcript of Hispanic Parents & the Schools
Over 25% of Hispanic adults have less than a ninth-grade education.
The high school dropout rate for Hispanic students of 28% is more than double that of non-Hispanic whites and blacks.
Only about 1 in 3 Hispanic students enroll for college. (Tienda & Mitchell, 2006)
“[Hispanics] are also one of the most educationally vulnerable minority groups in the U.S. They start kindergarten somewhat behind their peers; 44%, by age 13, are at least one year below expected grade level; and more than 40% drop out before completing high school” (Espinosa, 1995).
“Hispanic youth in general are the most under-educated major segment of the U.S. population, and are more than twice as likely to be undereducated than all groups combined.”
“Within the next 20 years, “the number of Latino children ages 5 to 13 will nearly double, and by 2030 Latino students will comprise one-fourth of the total K-12 school population.”
2 out of 3 of Latino immigrants live in poverty. (Tinkler, 2002) Hispanic Parents & the Schools & their perceptions of Hispanic parents "Previous findings indicate that authoritative parenting styles among Hispanic Americans do not have as great an impact on student's academic achievement compared to European American authoritative families."
"[P]arents will shift both their parenting styles and their engagement with the school when given information and an opportunity to explore how their attitudes and practices affect their children" (Chrispeels & Rivero, 2001). "As stated by Inger, many school administrators and teachers misread the reserve, the non-confrontational manners, and the non-involvement of Hispanic parents to mean that they are uncaring about their children’s education."
"If participation at school events is used as the only indicator of parental involvement, it may not provide a full picture of the contribution of parents" (Tinkler, 2001). diversity "Although they are united by a common language, Hispanics in the U.S. are not a homogeneous group. They represent great diversity in terms of socioeconomic status, race, age, country of origin, and the nature and timing of their immigration (Nicolau & Ramos, 1990). Differences among Hispanic subgroups in communication styles and socialization practices are often greater than the overall differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanics" (Espinosa, 1995). What do they expect? "Above all, they expect children to acquire "buena educación" (Delgado Gaitan &Trueba, 1991, p.35), or good manners, and to know their own culture and their expected role within the culture"
(Chrispeels & Rivero 2001). “Hispanic parents tend to see the school as the main force responsible for their children's education and academic development" (Chrispeels & Rivero, 2001). They expect their children to respect the teacher. Involvement ensuring their child's attendance instilling respect for the teacher encouraging and expecting good behavior in school by their child meeting their obligations to provide clothing, shelter, and food for their children socializing the child to their family responsibilities
(Chrispeels & Rivero, 2001) "As stated by Inger (1992), there is considerable evidence that parent involvement leads to improved student achievement, better school attendance, and reduced dropout rates, and that these improvement occur regardless of the economic, racial, or cultural background of the family" (Tinkler, 2002). "However, evidence exists that merely increasing the amount of school involvement will not necessarily lead to such positive outcomes, especially for Hispanic families (Bauch, 1992). Hispanic parents have consistently demonstrated low rates of school involvement; when their involvement has increased, this increase has not necessarily led to parents' more positive perceptions of schools" (Espinosa, 1995). "To determine effective strategies for connecting Hispanic parents and their children's early childhood programs, educators need to develop a greater understanding of the features of the Hispanic culture that influence parents' childrearing and socialization practices, communication styles, and orientation toward formal education" (Espinosa, 1995). "The underlying principle guiding PIQE is that parents, especially those who have low incomes or are recent immigrants to the United States, need information about (a) the educational system, (b) how to interact with the school and teachers, and (c) how to help their children at home. The program consists of eight 90-min sessions (six content sessions, one orientation, and a graduation ceremony). All PIQE instructors use a prescribed curriculum that is translated into the parents' language"
(Chrispeels & Rivero, 2001). "There are some differences in the way Hispanic and other American children are socialized. Hispanic culture tends to emphasize obedience and to value respect for adult authority. A directive style of communication between parent and child is most common, with little collaborative conversation, elaborated speech models, or early literacy experiences" (Espinosa, 1995). + Aspirations toward higher education increase
+ Teaching parents school language
- Trying to change parenting style
Fixing the Problem... What schools can do Teacher training on Hispanic culture Make the environment more inviting Personalized communication—phone and home visits Activities based on the parents' interests and Funds of Knowledege Acknowleding parents’ cultural values and viewing them as strengths—implenting them within the curriculum Hire bilingual staff members Having a parent coordinator Classes and workshops for parents 1 2 3 5 4 6 7 8 What Prevents School environment Cultural mismatch Education of parents Language barrier Past experiences Logistical issues What the parents said... “What happens is when I want to speak with the teacher, I go directly to her personally because it's difficult to just leave her a note that she'll understand--I feel like she won't understand me." "I don't dare ask questions publicly because I feel like everyone is going to look at me. You know what I mean? So, quietly, I asked her that if I have any doubts if I could come and speak with her, and she told me yes." “Those who speak English well don't have any problems, but the ones who don't know anything obviously will be much worse off. But sometimes I feel ashamed...like to ask something that will make me look 'como el ridiculo' (bad)." "In many families neither of the two parents felt competent enough to deal with school personnel. They were embarrassed, and found almost any excuse not to go to the school and 'ponerse en evidencia' (show how ignorant or incapable they were)"
(Chrispeels & Rivero, 2001). "I feel like I don't get involved, but it's for the same reason of the language. Because, it's not like I don't know anything, but I feel like I'm going to mess up and I consume myself with that. So I don't make time to help either. But I would like to because I feel like it is very important for my daughter. Becuase when I go to have lunch with her, for her, it's the best thing! So if I went to help out as well, she would probably also feel like I support her...and, well, I guess I would like to because I feel like teachers' jobs are tiring. They need so many papers and copies made every day and for every child. So, I feel like it's so much work on top of teaching them everything. You know what I mean? I would really like to do it but the truth is that I just haven't committed." Parent 1 Profile Parent 2 Profile Parent 3 Profile Late 40s
1 child in kindergarten
Metro Nashville Schools
1 child in 7th grade
1 child in 11th grade
Williamson County Schools
1 child in kindergarten
1 child in 4th grade
Metro Nashville Schools
"I want her to be a good student--for her to be respectful. I mean, I don't know if they teach those values in schools here or not; but when I was is school, the teacher WAS the teacher...not like now." "Schools are more flexible here; and I don't know--it might just be my percepetion, but it seems easier. Someone told me once that if someone doesn't pass here, it's because he's lazy." Students ESL testing "I don't feel like I can complain or make demands of the school because I wanted to come here. But I think that maybe, for the children, they should probably give them better testing when they get here and place them in the level that they need." "Consequently the language development of Hispanic children is frequently behind that of their American middle class peers when they enter kindergarten, and may appear especially so if they have been assessed with formal language measures" (Espinosa, 1995). (Adapted from Tinkler, 2002) Adapted from Tinker, 2002