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English Civil War Project
Transcript of English Civil War Project
Well of course one significant person on the side of the pro-monarchy was King Charles I, he was a huge part of what started the war because he needed money and when parliamnet refused he wasn't fond of that so he set about non-legitiment ways of 'raising' money for his campaign signs, behind parliaments back. Another major person at this time in favor of the hierarchy, like the king, was William Laud. William Luad was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by none other than the King Charles I, meaning he was the leading official of the Church of England, a major cause of the war, religion.
Major battles fought
English Civil War Project
Causes of the English Civil War
Marriage to the Catholic
Money and Economy Problems
New Religious Ideas
War with other Countries
Parliament not being heard
King Charles I, was used to an extravagant lifestyle full of lavish parties thrown for members of his court, but when he needed money he had to ask parliament which was made up of mostly middle-class gentries they granted him income for custom duties for a single year instead of his lifetime which was customary. When parliament wouldn't grant him money for military campaigns he sought ways of his own, using his nobility and imposing taxes on everyone. Because of parliaments noncooperation he resorted to a forced loan which was money from taxes levies without the consent of parliament. He also imposed knighthood fees on landowners, monopolies were granted to rich merchants and forest boundaries were reinstated so that forest fines could be levied, all in an effort to raise money without parliament.
The unpopular marriage
King Charles I and Henrietta Maria, of France
Nobles vs. Peasents
Nobles were the Royalists or the Cavaliers, these people were made up of the higher-class, they respected social organization and agreed with the king's Anglican beliefs. Peasents were the middle class people, or otherwise known as roundheads, many members of the parliment were middle class gentries or merchants, these people did not agree with the social hierarchy.
God's Agents on Earth
With the divine right of kings, King James I, as well as his son King Charles I, believe that God appointed the Kings. Then seeing as how god was never wrong they believed his 'agents' weren't either so after watching the broken relationship between parliamnet and his father, King Charles I, believed that kings were never wrong and parliment was entirely at fault.
In 1633 William Laud was instated as Archbishop of Canterbury, by the king. He was protestant but belived that the puritan way was too extreme. In an effort to 'evolutionise' he wanted to create a uniformity of worship, based on the Common Book of Prayer. He wanted to being back some of the old ceremonies and rituals, Preists were to wear vests to show their higher status, and decorations such as staues and stained glass were reintroduced.
Scotland and Ireland
Scotland invaded Englad looking for religous concessions which then paved the way for Catholic Ireland. The struggle between King Charles and his parliament over who should control the army, in turn led to war. For the most part northern and western England and Ireland were for the king. While their opponets consisted of the Southeastern part of England, Royal navy and Scotland were on the side of parliament.
In some ways parliament is similar to our congress with Kings Charles I, representing the equal of our president. If done in congressional order parliament should have always been notified with extremeties in the government but because the king didn't agree with this, they weren't. Parliament was nessecary for raising taxes and passing legislation. After King Charles I request for money was refused, he dissolved parliament within ony a matter of a few weeks, so their concerns for the new reforms weren't heard.
Royalists vs. Paralimentarians
At the start of his reign, King Charles was joined in holy matrimony with Henrietta Maria, of France. She was of the Roman Catholic belief, many of which were distrusted and feared. During Queen Mary I's reign, or also to become known as bloody mary, many protestant believers were persecuted.
A power overlooked
Opponents of the War
For the common people
Roundheads were in favor of parliment and against the ways of the King. So much so puritans wore their hair closely cropped in an obvious attempt to stand out from King Charles' court, who wore their hair in long ringlets.
All hale King Charles
Royalists, also known as cavaliers, were a group in favor of King Charles and his ways. This group was made up of mostly higher-class citizens who respected social organization and agreed with the Kings High Anglican Beliefs.
The Englsih Civil War is very well known for 3 specific battles. The battle of Edgehill, the battle of Marston Moor, and the battle of Naseby.These are however only a few of the many battles fought.
Battle of Edgehill
The Battle of Edgehill was the first pitched battle of the First English Civil War. This battle took place in open feilds between the villages of Radway and Kineton in Warwickshire. Earl of Essex, the parliment Lord Gerneral, won this battle.
Battle of Martson Moore
The Battle of Martson is the largest battle ever fought on English soil. It took place on July 2, 1644 durign the English Civil War. This battle was fought in Long Martson, North Yorkshire. This battle was between the Roylasits and Parliemtarians. The victors were the Parlimentarians and Scottish Covenanters.
Battle of Naseby
On June 14, 1645, near the village of naseby in Northamptonshire, the Battle of Naseby was fought. The main army of King Charles I was destroyed by the Parlimentarian Army. Only about 4,000 Royalists escaped fromt the feilds alive. The rest did not make it.
Royalists vs. Puritans
On the other side, the ones in favor of a more conservative lifestyle, was Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell was the leader of parliaments military forces. His desciplined training led to many victories on his side. Another well outspoken man was John Pym, he was in favor of parliament, obviously cause he was apart of it. He openly spoke out about the reform, not agreeing with it.
The side in which we would rein would be the puritians. We agree more with the puritians than the royalists because the royalists were full of them selves and cocky. The puritans were easier to relate to.
The Final Victory and Conclusion
With over 200,000 casualties resulting from this war, 34,000 putians, 50,000 royalists, and more Scottish and Irish deaths the parlimentarians finally recieved the major victory. After this victory for puritans, Oliver Cromwell organized a commonwealth government. Unfortunately though, after the death of Cromwell his son was unable to maintain the government. In short term there was chaos within governments forms being inacted, in long term there was never to be abute monarchy in the government again.