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Events Establishing the Civil Rights Movement
Transcript of Events Establishing the Civil Rights Movement
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
Montgomery Bus Boycott
The Little Rock Nine and Integration of Little Rock Central High School
4 Black Students Sit-in at a White Only Restaurant in Greensboro, North Carolina
Freedom Rides Begin from Washington, D.C. into Southern States
Civil Rights Leader Medgar Evers is Killed
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Delivers "I Have a Dream" Speech
The Death of Emmett Till and the Following National Outrage
Oliver Brown and the parents of twelve other black students recognized the unfair treatment of all black schools compared to all white schools. Less money was spent on the all black schools as well as black students were denied entry into the all white schools. They then filed a lawsuit with the NAACP against the school board. The suit was lost at the state level and was carried over to the Supreme Court where the case ended in favor of Oliver and the other black parents. This ruling set into motion the integration of schools across America.
4 Black Girls Dead in Church Bombing in Birmingham, Alabama
Congress Passes Civil Rights Act Declaring Discrimination Based on Race Illegal
A woman holds a newspaper that reads segregation in public schools is ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.
Fourteen year-old Emmett Till, while visiting relatives in Money, Mississippi was brutally murdered for allegedly flirting with a white woman. Emmett's murder was committed by the woman's husband and brother who were later tried in a segregated courthouse. The all white jury found the men "not guilty" which enraged both blacks and whites around the nation. This event brought light to the cruel practices of segregation in the south and was an early stimulus to the Civil Rights Movement.
Rosa Parks, a civil rights activist, famous for her refusal to give up her seat for a white passenger on a public bus, spurred the Montgomery bus boycott. She was also a NAACP member, rallied for civil rights issues, launched nationwide efforts to integrate public facilities, and won many awards for her determination to gain civil rights.
The Montgomery bus boycott was a thirteen-month long nonviolent mass protest that challenged racial segregation. Motivated by the arrest of Rosa Parks who refused to relinquish her seat to a white passenger on a public bus, ninety percent of the black bus riders stayed off the buses. This protest and other events transpired which led to the Supreme Court ruling that segregation on public buses was unconstitutional.
The Little Rock Nine was composed of nine black students that were involved in the integration of Little Rock Central High School. Arkansas governor Orval Faubus, sent in the Arkansas National Guard to prevent the black students from integrating the school in defiance of a federal court order. President Eisenhower answered by sending the National Guard and Army troops to aide the nine into the school. This led to the gradual integration of the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Four black college students sat down at an all whites lunch counter in a Woolworth's store in North Carolina. After being denied service they refused to leave and over the following months more students joined the peaceful sit-in protests. This spread to other places in the south and this civil disobedience resulted in the integration of lunch counters including Woolworth's.
It was ruled in the Supreme Court that segregation on public buses was unconstitutional yet this wasn't enforced in the south. Mixed racial groups began to ride public buses from Washington D.C. into the southern states to call attention to disregard for the federal law. The Congress of Racial Equality sponsored most of the freedom rides. These rides helped to reinforce the implementation of the federal law for integration on public buses.
Introduction Caroline Watts period 4
Many events led to the enactment of the U.S. Civil Rights Act all of which were to gain equal privileges, opportunities, and rights for all people. These goals of equality were pursued through legal means, negotiations, petitions, and nonviolent protest demonstrations.
Medgar Evers was a civil rights activist and member of the NAACP working to desegregate the University of Mississippi. He was shot by Byron De La Beckwith, a white supremacist who later joined the Klu Klux Klan. Beckwith was tried twice for the murder of Medgar Evers which both resulted in hung juries. It took thirty years for justice to be served when he was tried again, found guilty and was sentenced to life in prison.
Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial to 250,000 civil rights supporters. Dr. King called for an end to racism as well as for freedom and equality for all. His speech was a defining event in the Civil Rights Movement because he expressed how Americans should strive to follow the principles set forth in the U.S. Constitution.
At the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, a frequent meeting place for civil rights activists, four young black girls attending Sunday school were killed as a bomb exploded under the front steps of the church. Robert Chambliss, an active member of the Klu Klux Klan, was tried for the murders but was only convicted of possessing dynamite without a permit. About fifteen years later he along with three other Klu Klux Klan members were found guilty of the murders. Many people were sympathetic towards this tragedy as it encapsulated the violence escalating from parts of the south.
The Civil Rights Act banned discrimination against racial, ethnic, religious minorities, and women. It sought to end racial segregation in public facilities as well as employment segregation in the United States. Although the act faced strong opposition from the south, it was considered to be a crowning legislative achievement.
January 21, 2014
Rosa Parks, a contributing activist to the Civil Rights Movement.
Emmett Till's death makes national news and outrages the public.
People find alternate ways to commute as they boycott the public bus system.
The Arkansas National Guard denies the nine black students entry to Little Rock Central High School.
4 black college students participate in a sit-in protest at a diner.
Civil rights activists ride the buses into the southern states to enforce the integration of buses.
Denise McNair, Addie Mae Collins, Carole Robertson and Cynthia Wesley were the victims of a church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama.
Medgar Evers was shot and killed outside his home by a white supremacist.
Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his renowned "I Have a Dream" speech at the march on Washington.