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Germany: The State of Renewable Energies

This Prezi is going to present two of Germany's current non-renewable energies, then evaluate possible renewables and finally, give a recommendation of which renewable to invest the most in.

Michael Lemp

on 10 December 2010

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Transcript of Germany: The State of Renewable Energies

If performed sustainably then there is no increase in CO
Can be placed on land not needed for crops
Moderate costs Cons If not performed properly, then it is not a renewable resource
High environmental impact
If not performed properly, there will be an increase in CO
Loss of animal habitat
Soil erosion
Usuaslly inefficiently burned Biological Material from living organisms, like wood, and alcohol fuels It is most commonly plant matter grown and used to generate electricity or heat Some examples of plants that are used are switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sugarcane and numerous tree species. Examples in Germany Biomass Action Plan
Plans to increase biomass in Germany due to lack of fossil fuels Brunsbüttel Biomass plant
One of the largest in Germany
80 thousand tons per year Biomass-Past and Present Germany largest biomass producer in Europe
Accounts for around 10% of Germany's heating requirements
Mostly individual burning, but there are factories that also contribute Future Has the potential to produce much more than it is producing now
This number continutes to increase every year
Plans are being created to increase sustainable biomass
There is controversy over the subject and it will remain this way for years to come Very similiar to biomass Renewable Resources So what now?.. Non-Renewable Resources Energy In Germany Coal Oil Natural Gas Germany is the largest producer of coal in the European Union
Germany is the seventh largest producer of coal in the world
Most of the coal in Germany is lignite, a poor-quality brown coal
Supplies 42% of German power A World Leader Electricity from geothermal sources is set to soar in Germany -- and all thanks to a law that has made drilling to the necessary depth for hot temperature water (which is needed to produce electricity) financially viable. Pros Cons Pros
Easy to burn
Germany has vast coal reserves Moderate to high net energy yield
High efficiency
Moderate capital costs
Low electricity costs
Very low environmental impact
No CO emissions
Quick Construction
Easily Expanded
Can be located offshore
Land below turbines can still be used to grow crops or raise livestock
Germany passed Japan in making photovoltaic ( PV solar cells) in 2007 Their production went up 56 percent
from 2006-2007. Steady winds needed
Backup system needed when there are no winds
Plastic componenents produced from oil
Environmental costs not included in market price
High land use for wind farm
Visual pollution
Noise when located near populated areas
Can kill birds and affect their migration patterns When you push next you it will zoom to the area Germany is located in and it is easily noticable that they have warm ground perfect for Geothermal energy. Germany employs
80,000 in PV industry alone Pros The dam can be used for drinking water which can be crucial during droughts. Less than 0.4 percent of Germany's total primary energy supply came from geothermal sources in 2004. But after a renewable energy law that introduced a tariff scheme of EU €0.15 [US $0.23] per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for electricity produced from geothermal sources came into effect that year, a construction boom was sparked and the new power plants are now starting to come online. After the dam is paid off, it becomes extremely cost- effective, making it a relatively cheap form of energy. Any crisis can be controlled very quickly and operations can be shut down very quickly. The greenhouse gases that can potentially be released can be prevented by properly clearing any land before building. Examples in Germany Dardesheim Germany
in 2007 went 100 to
renewable energy Cons The initial investment for building a dam is very expensive! Dams can be very detrimental to fish habitats due to the turbines in the dam that kill fish and the dams themselves which disturb natural migrating patterns, fish offspring development, and silt deposits. Dam breakage is rare, but if it happens it can be extremely detrimental due to flooding. High amounts of greenhouse gases can be released if there are decaying plants in the water. Hydroelectric power is created by harvesting the energy from the movement of water. This was originally done by the natural flow of a river, but it is now generated by a dam which is built in conjunction with an electricity generator. Here is a short video clip as a visual aid... Hydroelectricity is reliable and can work around the clock. Sonnenschiff produced 4 times
the amount of energy it produced How does it work? Germany Only 5% of the electricty produced in Germany comes from hydropower. German companies that make hydroelectric equipment are very innovative and their products are known for their high quality and long service life. They are sought by consumers all over the world. Power plants produce geothermal energy by utilizing geothermal dry steam or geothermal hot water accessed by digging wells. Dry steam or hot water is brought to the surface through pipes and processed into electricity in the power plant. There are three different ways that power plants process geothermal energy. The three different methods are dry steam, flash steam and binary-cycle. All three methods use steam to power a turbine which drives a generator that produces electricity.
Vast reserves of energy unleashed in fissive collision between Uranium 235 nucleus and accelerated neutron: equivalent to 1 million gallons of gasoline per pound! Verdict Solar power is perfect
for Germany. They are leaders in that field and have an auspicious future Unfortunately in Germany, there is virtually no space for the construction of more hydroelectric facilities. Evolution of Wind Energy Solar Power news Wind Energy of the Future? A few months ago a newspaper reported Germany's solar power could
crash the grid:
"A small surge can be accommodated by switching off conventional
power station generators, to keep the overall supply to the
grid the same. But if the solar power input is too large
it will exceed demand even with all the generators switched off." Hydropower is included in the renumeration created by the EEG (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz, or the Renewable Energies Law). The amount of remuneration depends on the plant size (the bigger the plant, the higher the renumeration). The first German geothermal power plant was built in 2003 in Neustadt-Glewe, located in northern Germany. (Internal image next) Where are the windfarms? Pros and Cons Current Situation in Germany. Globally, it is the most used renewable energy resource after bioenergy. Hydropower in Norway and Paraguay meets more than 95 % of the national requirements! Germany is Europe's leading country when it comes to solar power.
Part of the country's success comes from the massive Government
subsidized solar panels. The solar comapanies in Germany pull in big
bucks from this too. In 2006 the companies profit from selling solar panels worldwide was $9.5 billion and they want to increase that profit by 20 percent
each year. Pros Cons Alpha Ventus: Germany's first offshore windfarm. Alpha Ventus avoids
the normal problems of wind energy, such as scarcity of land, and the unpredictability of wind. Despite its high costs, its ability to power 50,000 homes will make it a viable energy source for the future of Germany. As the first project in the planned series of plants, SGG is constructing a geothermal power plant near the community of Dürrnhaar, in the Kirchstockach area, for which the company has a prospecting permit. -Extremely long half lives of radioactive waste material
Operating Geothermal Plant located in Bavaria, Germany Solarpark in Lieberose Cons
Burning coal releases sulfur into the atmosphere
Acid rain
CO2 emissions Pros
Easy to burn
Used in the development of many common goods such as plastics
Powerful energy source when it is burned Wind Cons
Releases CO2 when burned
Plastics are not easily disposed of
Damages ecosystems
Supply does not meet annual consumption Germany is largely dependent on foreign countries for oil imports Wind energy shows great potential for
the future sustainability of Germany. Along
with government support, the market potential
of wind energy makes it a viable solution
for a greener Germany. I believe we will see an increase in the number of offshore windfarms as
land becomes scarcer, and inevitably, more expensive. There is plenty of room for offshore windfarms, and constant wind will increase the likelihood of its emergence as a viable energy source. Hydroelectric power is a very environmentally friendly way to harvest energy, but unfortunately for Germany, it will be difficult at this point to pursue. There are already so many dams built that to add a generator will require a huge investment and a lot of ecological planning to avoid the negative impact to nearby ecosystems. As of now Geothermal energy is not very popular in Germany. As stated earlier there has been recent financial incentives set by the German Government. The cost for Geothermal Energy is prodjected to decrease therefore making Geothermal energy something that should be seriously considered by Germany in the future. For now cheaper forms of energy could be used. Solar power's future is bright for Germany. They are already ahead of most countries the world over. As long as their government continues subsidizing solar panels, they will continue to be leaders in this field. Citizens and companies are dynamic in making Germany as green as possible and to create as many green jobs as possible. Solar Germany has no sizeable natural gas reserves, so it must import most of its natural gas GEOTHERMAL Pros
Large untapped sources still exist today
Burns 30% cleaner than coal
Hydroelectric Cons
Mostly composed of methane which is known to be extremely flammable
Methane is a greenhouse gas
A non-renewable resource is a natural resource which cannot be produced, re-grown, regenerated, or reused on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate. These resources often exist in a fixed amount, or are consumed much faster than nature can recreate them Non-Renewables
With the increase in renewable energy usage in Germany, non-renewable resource usage will decline over time. Also, due to the dwindling supply of oil and natural gas and the increase in price as a result, Germany will use other sources for energy. Thank you for watching

Michael Lemp
Tejas Borse
Alexander Wnorowski
Joshua Sabey
Nick Mart
Courtney Hotchkiss
Michael Bellavia
- No need for fossil fuels * Less reliance on OPEC and foreign producers * Reduced emissions aligned with Kyoto Protocol (1999):
at least 21% reduction of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse-gas emissions by the close of 2010 * Economy, industry less affected by fluctuations in oil prices -Lower cost than coal * Attractive in lower "fuel" cost versus energy output relative to coal * Reactors can be outfitted to recycle spent fuel *Reaction products may have decay half-lives in the hundreds to millions of years.The material is safe for exposure to organisms after about 10 half-lives, and must be buried until then. Cesium 135, for example, has a half life of 2.3 million years, so it could not be considered harmless until after 23 million years. -Health and ecological concerns of waste *Despite all efforts, waste may escape containment centers and contaminate the water table, or tracings from uranium mining can irradiate streams and soil *Radiation harmful, can be lethal or cancer-inducing (eventually) in sustained exposure (barring a reactor meltdown) (uprising in Gorleben, Green Party candidate in Berlin mayoral race) * Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) estimates an additional 1 billion tons of CO produced per year for coal plants to generate equivalent power currently supplied by reactors worldwide 2 Currently in Germany
and the Near Future - 17 reactors, supply over 20% of total electric output -shift suggested in favoritism (or vision) of policymakers:
2.5 billion Euros spent in 2007 to subsidize coal mines->provide 55% of grid electricity, 2010 Merkel rescinds predesscessors phase out of nuclear power generation A hydroelectric power plant in Hohenwarte, Germany. - no drive to increase capacity (only continuation),
perhaps fearful of electorate's perspective -historically ambivalent to nuclear energy, the German populace has begun a noted shift against it following the approval of the Bundestag for Merkel's plan to extend reactor lifetimes up to perhaps 2060 Biomass Biomass is a good way to create energy if it is performed sustainably. The problem is that even if it is performed sustainably, there is still harm done to the environment. Also, biomass takes up room and land that could be used to grow crops and food. With that being said, as population grows, the amount of biomass energy produced will decrease. The environment needs to be taken care of and biomass is a good way to start this trend, but not sucessful as a final solution -Germany's depleted uranium reserves *from 1946-1989 220,000 tons of uranium mined in the former East Germany under Soviet direction *now about 4000 tons per year entirely imported from Canada, Russia, and Australia, and with uranium at an average value of over $1000 USD per kilogram, this is an expenditure of almost $4 billion USD per year Nuclear http://www.industcards.com/biomass-germany.htm
http://www.radiationanswers.org/radiation-and-me/effects-of-radiation.html Sources Though nuclear energy provides substantial power for a modest price relative to coal plants, as well as lower carbon emissions, the toxic and longstanding waste byproduct cannot be overlooked. The dangers of radiation, however, have been a bit sensationalized, and this is particularly seen in the sentiment and overbearing fear of the sentiments of the activists at Gorleben. Undoubtedly public opinion (of those once neutral) was shifted slightly. Merkel’s precedence stands: nuclear energy shall be continued, though her successors will determine the duration. Given the exorbitant price of nuclear fuel as well as the radioactive waste, nuclear energy should serve as a transition energy until renewable energies can more fully substantiate the grid. And this shouldn’t be too long, as Germany was until recently the worldwide leader in these technologies. 2 2 2 - risks of radiation have been somewhat inflated, reflecting the unknowning of much of society -radiation measured in Roetgen equivalents in man (rems), which is a factor that includes both dosage strength and its capacity for ecological harm 0-100 rem(s) Minimal health effects, at higher ranges for lengthy exposure (years) heightening of cancer risk 100-300 rems Vomiting, fatigue 300-500 rems Hair and appetite loss, vomiting,
about half of those exposed die without medical attention Death in several days, internal bleeding at upper levels
(range experienced by victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) 500-1200 rems - Very unlikely that one will be exposed to damaging radiation levels, according to probabilistic analysis US residents have cancer risk increased by .002%, may or may not be lower in Germany (fewer reactors, but less landmass) >>Leaking waste containers inside a salt mine in Saxony, Germany - In Germany, salt mines are the storage medium of choice,
self-seal, trap radioactive gases, and are away from the water table Germany mandates storage in these areas with
Nuclear Energy Act 1976: - Further economic dependency * contracts worth $7.3 billion provided to French companies (ex. Areva) and other foreign reprocessors since mid-2005 What happens when salt mine capacity
is filled? Can we ethically store nuclear
wastes at the surface?
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