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Global Consumption & Cultural Hybridization
Transcript of Global Consumption & Cultural Hybridization
The Sociology of Consumption
Consumption is a social activity – involves people doing a certain kind of work (buying and using media) in particular places, often with other people.
Consumption is implicated in many different relations of power with others and with institutions.
The Geography of Media Consumption
People consume media in every kind of places – in the living room, in their car, in classrooms, at their workplace, and in countless other places.
Where people consume the media has important influence on how they consume media, it might also the media themselves shape the geography of everyday life.
The aspects of the geography also included whether the presence of medium brings people together or sends them off in to personal spaces.
The Geography of Media Consumption
The most important private space of media consumption is the home.
The media technologies that first came into the home – the book, the newspaper, the radio and the television – were thought to have a centripetal force within the private space of the home.
The family gathered around the medium, shared the media and developed communal activity.
Because of family gathered around the television set in the living room, it also encourage the pattern to buy new technologies as a family activities.
It is common myth in the world society that the media consumption is equally available to all people. – “free marketplace” of media products; therefore everyone can consume.
This assumption underlies the media institutions’ defense of the current system of media production (We give people what they want).
Some feminists have criticized the position that consumption always involves resistance because it ignores that fact that consumption itself is a form of labor; it is something that some people (namely women) have to do for the family.
Media consumption takes money and time; leisure time is a luxury that is simply not available to the poor or people that have to work more than one job subsist.
These debates have been especially prominent around the Internet; are we creating digital divide?
People increasing the gap and condemning the media haves and have-not often cuts according to economic status, race and gender.
Though women and men use the Internet in generally equal numbers, men focus on news and information while women tend to use Internet for social contacts, health or fashion information.
Differences in use also evident across racial categories, with certain groups more likely to engage in certain activities online than others.
Media consumption follows the patterns of the distribution of economic and cultural capital in the worlds.
The media produce commodities or money and cultural products (meanings, ideologies, and identities) (Kosinski, 1970).
But the circuit of communication cannot the end there.
People have to purchase or acquire these commodities and then use such commodities.
Media industries depend on the fact that people use up their products so that they will continue to buy new products.
People consume media in our everyday lives requires them to explore people’s relationship to media and cultural products.
James Carey (1969) and Denis McQuail (2000) have called these differences centripetal and centrifugal.
Movies can be thought of as having a centripetal force because in viewing a movie, the audience is brought together.
The personal stereo has a more centrifugal impact because it is used alone.
The technologies have become cheaper, smaller, more mobile and more personal; their effects became more centrifugal.
It is also interesting to observe how over time, different media have become more or less appropriate to different spaces in the home.
It is also important to recognize that the introduction of media technologies into the home has reshaped the geography of domestic space and life as well.
The introduction of a home computer usually requires power outlet and cable connection in close proximity, but it also raise questions of its proper space – in quiet home office or in bedroom or more open space where parents can monitor their children’s use (Cassidy, 2001).
Formal Culture - The body of beliefs and practices governing the conduct of the relevant area, specific activities or human experience.
Informal Culture - Beliefs and practices regulating all or major human life – “Way of Life”.
Primitive culture – Way of life judge to be backward and insufficiently advanced.
Moral or political culture – sets of beliefs and practices governing the conduct respectively of moral and political life.
Components of Culture
1. Includes a body of beliefs including ideas, images, myths, maxims and proverbs pithily expressing its collective freedom.
2. Includes values, ideals of excellence, norms of behavior and specific conception of good life – social relation, marriages and etc.
3. Tend to posses rituals, traditions of music and arts, written and unwritten literature, stories and so on.
4. Members of cultural group have some conception of how it began, develop and what it stands for.
5. Since a culture involves a special mode of behavior and specific understanding of life, it can encourage specifics traits of temperament, psychological and moral dispositions and motivational structures
These five components of culture are interrelated and derive their meaning and significance from their relations with each other.
Two cultures might share common practices but the way that justify and the meaning of the practices might be different.
Culture evolves over time, is a precipitate of diverse influences and has no coordinating authority.
Cultures are overlap cannot be neatly individuated or clearly marked off from each other. Example – language and religions too overlap and cannot be neatly separated but that does not deny their individuality.
Sharing a culture is a matter of degree, culture is articulated at various levels and has several components – one might subscribe to some parts of it but not others.
Include several culture communities with their overlapping but none the less distinct conceptions of the world, systems of meaning, values, forms of society organization, histories, customs and practices.
Culture hybridization society is one with several distinct and well-developed cultural communities.
A society consisting of several identifiable cultural communities.
Judge and grade them and assimilate the inferior ones into one judged to be the best.
If the objective judgment is impossible, every society has its own long-established and distinct culture – although not objectively the best, but best for it.
The society has a right and a duty to preserve it, and to assimilate its minorities into it.
All culture deserves respect and should enjoy the freedom and the opportunity to preserve and reproduce themselves.
A stable cultural community is vital to human well-being and that to assimilate or discourage minority cultures is to cause their members grave harm.
Forms of Culture Hybridization
Isolations – a vision of society which different cultural groups leads autonomous lives and engages in minimum mutual interaction necessitated by their having a life together.
Accommodative – a society which rests on a dominant culture but makes appropriate adjustments and provisions for minority cultural needs.
Autonomist – a vision of society in which major cultural groups seek equality with the dominant culture and aim to lead autonomous lives within a collectively acceptable framework.
Interactive – a society in which cultural groups are concerned not so much to lead autonomous lives to create a collective culture that reflects and affirms their distinct perspectives.
Cosmopolitan – seeks to breakthrough the bounds of culture altogether and to create a society in which individuals, now no longer committed to specific cultures, freely engage in intercultural experiments and evolve a cultural life of their own.