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Transcript of Latin America
Middle America is made up of Mexico and an isthmus*.
These plates can cause earthquakes and volcanoes to erupt.The volcanic ash makes fertile soil.
This area is located over four tectonic plates.
Islands in the Caribbean are also called the West Indies. There are three sections;Great Antilles, Lesser Antilles, and Bahamas.
The Great Antilles are made up of 4 different islands; Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica.
The Lesser Antilles is a type of group of islands. The group of islands is called an achipelago.It is a curve of land from the Virgin Islands to Trinidad.
The Bahamas, also an archipelago, is an area that has some Caribbean islands that have volcanoes and others that do not. The tectonic plates cause some volcanoes to erupt and can also cause earthquakes. The ash from the volcanoes is good for growing plants like sugarcane and tobacco.
*Isthmus-a narrow stretch of land connecting two larger landmasses
South America has two main areas. These areas are, the Amazon Basin and the Andes Mountains.
The Amazon Basin is about 2.7 million miles square.
The Amazon River is located here as well. The river is important because, the fish is important for the local people.
The Amazon Basin is about 2.7 million miles square. It also includes the Amazon River. The river is important to the locals because, they can fish in it and it is used for trade.
There are lowlands north and south of the Amazon Basin. The lowlands in the north are called the Llanos. The lowlands in the south are called the Pampas. These lowlands have a lot of grass in them.
The Andes mountain system is the worlds longest mountain system. Most mountains are about 20,000 ft. tall. The mountains have plateaus and valleys in between them, and that's where most people live and farm.
= Andes and Amazon Basin
The longest river in Latin America is the Amazon River. It goes from west to east for 4,000 miles. Heavy rain and smaller rivers help feed the Amazon river.
The Parana, Paraguay, and Uruguay drains the eastern half of Latin America that is very rainy. It drains into the Atlantic Ocean.
Another important river is the Orinoco, this river goes through Venezuela and into the Caribbean Sea. It also brings fertile soil to the Llanos region.
The Panama Canal was made by man and is used to cut time between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
There is also two other major lakes. Lake Titicaca and Maracaibo. Maracaibo is South America's largest lake and it is located in Venezuela. There are oil fields under the lake. Lake Titicaca is in between Bolivia and Peru. It is about 12,500 ft. above sea level.
A Wealth of Natural Resources
Brazil's Abundant Resources
Venezuela and Mexico have large amounts of energy resources.They have oil and natural gas reserves.
Bolivia and Ecuador also have oil and natural gas deposits.Other countries have tried to control Bolivia's natural resources. Bolivia's government has tried to prevent this from happening.
Hot to Mild Climates
Types of Climates
tropical wet-heavy rain and year round hot temperatures
tropical dry-heavy rain and year round hot temperatures but, also has a long dry season
humid subtropical-long, hot, and humid summers with mild and short winters
mediterranean-rainy winters and dry summers
marine coastal climate zone-rains all year and is very heavy
dry climates-dry all year long, often deserts
El Nino-a change of air pressure, precipitation, and temperature, waters off Peru's coast are warm and bring rainfall which can make floods, it also can cause northeast Brazil to have a long dry season
All Types of Resources
*These resources can all be found in Latin America some where.
The Columbian Exchange
The Columbian Exchange is the process of exchanging people, animals, plants, and diseases
Brazil has many natural resources as shown in the map below.
The Andes mountain range is so big that there are altitude zones for the mountains. There are 4 altitude zones in the mountains and they range from:
sea level- 3,000 ft.
3,000 ft.- 6,000 ft.
6,000 ft.- 10,000 ft.
Note: The farther up you go the colder it gets.
The Aztecs moved into central Mexico.
The Mayans started building cities
in the Yucatan Peninsula.
The Mayans mysteriously
Spanish explorers started to come to the Americas.
An army led by Hernan Cortes, destroyed the Aztec with horses, diseases, and other advanced weapons.
The Inca empire-in South America-expands.
Many revolts throughout the world put Latin Americans into action.They also started revolts.
Revolt in Haiti led by Toussaint-Louverture.
Revolts in Haiti overthrew French rule.
Mexico became a republic.
Simon Boliviar and San Martin joined together to defeat spanish forces in Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, and Peru.
America helped fight off spanish attacks for Cuba. America defeated the spanish forces.
America helped Panama defeat spanish forces and succeeded. Panama let America build the Panama Canal.
Voters in Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia, Mexico, and Chile overthrew present rulers and elected rulers that would take away from the rich and give more to the poor.
The first revolt was in 1804, the revolt was in Haiti. Mexico gained independence in 1821. The new government in Mexico was a republic. Although they didn't get this government until 1823.
The rest of Latin America gained independence by 1824.
Brazil was the only independent monarchy in Latin America.All other countries were republican.
Slaves were freed by many countries.
The U.S. helped Panama earn freedom from spanish rule so, Panama let the U.S. build the Panama Canal.This canal shortened the time of travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
Culture and Lifestyle
Latin America has a high population growth rate.
Central America has the highest birth rate area. People are also migrating into and out of Latin America for better economies.
Some of the largest cities in Latin America:
Rio de Janeiro-Brazil
How people dwell, or live, is both good and bad. 80% of South America's people live in cities and 65% of Central America and the Caribbean Sea's people live in cities.A lack of education causes people to go into poverty and to live in unclean conditions with rising crime rates.
Ethnic groups and langueges
Latin American People
Also, mixes of these groups
Where They Live
Native Americans-Mexico,Central America,Ecuador, Peru,Bolivia
Spanish and Italian-Argentina,Uruguay,and Chile
African-Caribbean, North Eastern Brazil
Asian-Caribbean,Guyana,Some South American Countries
Most languages spoken are European,Native American,African, and Asian. Some people speak in pidgins,or a mix of languages
Different forms of religion:
Protestant forms of Christianity
Mixes of Native American and Christianity
Mixes of African and Christianity
Families live together and take care of each other and the father is the family leader except on a few occasions when the mother is the family leader.
recreations and celebrations
Latin America has national sports like most other countries. Soccer, baseball, and cricket are favorite sports. Northern South America, Central America, and the Caribbean islands have at least one of these sports.
Celebrations such as the Day of the Dead, and Carnival. Carnival is a parade on the day before Lent, the Christian holy period, it is held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Day of the Dead is a Mexican holiday when people honor the deceased people in their family.
Feasting is important to Latin American people. Foods such as beef, beans, corn, rice, and fish are some of the foods they eat.
Latin America has people that like to paint and people that like to write. Diego Rivera painted murals about Mayan civilizations and Aztec civilizations. Cuba and Brazil have shaped American jazz. Some writers write about fantasies and others write about the government or politics.
1. Serious debt put some Latin American countries into serious trouble with revolts.
2. Economic reforms were made and were very harsh so people started disagreeing with the governments and democracy took hold.
3. Governments are still struggling to control their countries from drugs, overpopulation, and differences between the rich and the poor.
Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands
Mexico's people are mixes of culture such as, Spanish, Native American, and mestizos.
After some revolutions Mexico finally became a republic.
European and Native American cultures influence Mexican cultures. Mexico has three regions that are called, the South, the North, and Central Mexico. Mexico has many resources from farms and industries. Mexico uses plantations, subsistence farms, maquiladoras, or factories that assemble parts made in other countries, and vaqueros, or tools and methods for raising cattle.
Mexico has faced many economic changes through its course of getting to its present state. Mexico used to rely on farming, but now it relies on industries. These industries give Mexico a wide variety of goods. Technology has improved life in Mexico. Yet, fog and smog, blocked to escape by mountains, has threatened the lives of Mexico City, Mexico. A growing population has made living in Mexico harder and people have illegally and legally started to cross the border between the U.S. to get money to live better lives.
Central America and the caribbean islands
Central America is made up of 7 countries, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Coasta Rica, and Panama.
The Caribbean Islands are made up of 3 major islands. The countries that control these islands are Cuba, Haiti, and Puerto Rico.
Brazil's people live in over populated areas called favelas. These areas are usually located around large cities. Most people live along coasts to find better jobs. Today Brazil's people are mostly European, African, Native American, Asian, or a mix.
Brazil has many resources such as coffee, oranges, cassava, iron ore, bauxite, tin, manganese, gold, silver, diamonds, medicine, paper, clothing, and the minerals can make equipment like machinery airplanes and cars. These money making types of income create good income for Brazil.
Deforestation is a big problem in Brazil. Brazil logs the rain forest so they can get good income. The deforestation also provides jobs for Brazilian workers. Other countries try to get Brazil to save at least some parts of the forest.
Brazil declared independence in 1822 from Portugal. The country is now a democratic federal republic. This form of government is similar to the U.S.
Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina. The city holds about 1/3 of the population. This city holds beautiful and important cities. Buenos Aires is a city much like European cities with parks and wonderful buildings. The city is a port city that has government buildings.
Beef is important to Argentina's economy. Gauchos are cowhands that herd the cows through and to the fields to graze. They are admired so much that a gaucho is the national symbol for Argentina. Industry has helped the economy by bringing in money, but when Argentina tried to invest money into foreign banks, businesses were put in debt so the government went into debt, too.
The economy has recovered a little and the government paid off some of the debt.
The government went trough 4-5 different ruling periods before a solid government was established. The military took over at least two of those times. Then, finally, the government was turned into a democratic federal republic and in 2007 the first female president was elected, Cristina Fernandez.
other south american countries
Venezuela-mines-bauxite, gold, diamonds, and emeralds
farms-sugarcane, bananas, and cattle
collects-oil and natural gas
government-Hugo Chavez as president
promised to help make more money for
the poor from oil
Columbia-mines-coal, oil, copper, and emeralds
farms-coffee, sugarcane, bananas,
rice, and cotton
government-drug dealers pay farmers
to grow coca leaves to make the
illegal drug cocaine, then, the drug
dealers hire private armies to
protect them (like in the fast and
furious movies) from attack of
governmental officials.The U.S. has
tried to help Columbia get rid of
drug dealers like these. Poor rebels
control part of the country, too.
Chile-mines-copper, gold, silver, iron ore , and sodium nitrate
farm-wheat, corn, beans, sugarcane, potatoes, grapes
apples, sheep, fishing, and other livestock
government-had a long period of military rule, like
Argentina, and is now a democracy-the first woman
president was Michelle Bachelet.