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IV-19 The Beginnings of Modernization

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Robert Dozier

on 10 February 2017

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Transcript of IV-19 The Beginnings of Modernization

The Beginnings of Modernization: Industrialization and Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century
The Industrial Revolution and its Impact
• Before the Industrial Revolution, even the most advanced economies in Europe were still agriculture-based, both domestically and in their various overseas empires
• The Industrial Revolution triggered an enormous leap in industrial production that relied largely on new power sources such as coal and steam
• Modern economies became based on manufacturing, which attracted a large workforce who previously did farm work. The new industrial environment called for new ways of organizing human labor to maximize the benefits and profits from the new machines
• The urban working class, or proletariat, swelled the labor pool to the benefit of a wealthy industrial ownership class. This substantially transformed traditional social relationships
• The environmental effects were also significant; we are still dealing with them today as the cumulative environmental impact of the 19th century is compounded by contemporary developing nations
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
• The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the 1780s. Improvements in agricultural practices led to a significant increase in food production
• Food prices went down, and people suddenly had disposable income to purchase manufactured goods. Crucial to Britain’s successful industrialization was the ability to produce cheaply the articles in greatest demand
• The single most commonly sought products were those of refined cotton. Textile advancements such as the jenny and the loom doubled output, as did the steam engine, invented by Scotsman James Watt in 1782
• The steam engine was grown and modified to create locomotives; soon railroads were built throughout the Empire, with the capacity to transport people and goods great distances
• Factory work was a difficult adjustment from farm work; workers had regular hours and were punished for not keeping a pace (task v. time). Still, by the second and third generations of workers, they came to view the regimented workweek as a way of life
The Spread of Industrialization
• Although the Industrial Revolution began in Britain, it spread rapidly to Europe and North America. In addition to creating factories and manufacturing hubs, these nations facilitated the new industrial economy by investing in schools, infrastructure, and transportation
• Railroads connected the nations of continental Europe, and soon North America coast to coast
• The U.S. in particular had many natural advantages over the British Isles and the nations of continental Europe, as they were free to expand across their western territory with little competition
• In 1800, 6 out of every 7 workers was a farmer in the United States; by 1860 this had fallen to about half, though the overall population sextupled
• The states of the U.S. seemed to work in tandem, with the agricultural South providing resources for the industrial Northeast. However, the cultural differences (primarily the South’s use of slave labor) between the two would soon lead to civil war
Limiting the Spread of Industrialization to the Rest of the World
Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution
• Eventually, the Industrial Revolution transformed the social life of Europe and the world, manifested in the explosive growth of cities and the emergence of new social classes
• This urban growth expanded beyond the sanitary thresholds of most cities, such as garbage collection and sewer function. As a result, disease ran rampant in the urban areas
• The bourgeoisie lost its distinction as learned, professional members of the lower class and formed a distinct middle class - often in ownership/management in opposition to the proletariat
• The industrial working class was diverse, including men, women, and even children. While each group had a specific function, all encountered hazardous conditions (mines, jennies, etc.)
• Eventually, regulations were passed for safety’s sake. The Factory Act of 1833 prohibited the employment of children under nine and limited hours for those under 18
• Because of these and a multitude of other conditions, it is debatable whether or not the Industrial Revolution wholly raised the standard of living
The Growth of Industrial Prosperity
• Although in hindsight historians can debate whether or not industrializing benefited people, it unquestionably provided a dynamic age of material prosperity
• The new industries, new sources of energy, and new goods of the Second Industrial Revolution (1870-1914) led people to believe that their material progress reflected human progress
Emergence of a World Economy
• The economic developments of the late 19th century, combined with the transportation revolution that saw the growth of marine transport and railroads, fostered a true world economy
• By 1900, Europeans were receiving beef and wool from Argentina and Australia, coffee from Brazil, iron ore from Algeria, and sugar from Java
• Until the Industrial Revolution, European countries had imported more from Asia than they had exported, but now foreign countries provided markets for the surplus manufactured goods of Europe
• European capital was also invested abroad to develop railways, mines, electrical power plants, and banks – though strictly to facilitate market growth and subsequent European wealth
• With its capital, industries, and military might, Europe dominated the world economy by the beginning of the 20th century
Women and Work: New Job Opportunities
Organizing the Working Classes
• The plight of the proletariat led Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels to write
The Communist Manifesto
on the eve of the 1848 revolutions. It is quoted “…the history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class struggles.”
• This thesis maintains that class struggle is unavoidable when the bourgeoisie owns the means of production and the proletariat only owns their labor, a relationship that is intrinsically exploitative
• Marxism advocates that revolution is necessary for the proletariat to achieve true agency and create a classless, stateless society. This necessitates a period of socialism (state-directed economy) that would provide the transition to communism (state-owned economy)
• Marx’s ideas became popular after the Second Industrial Revolution, and various socialist political parties formed in the industrialized nations. Some won seats in government, but they never achieved a meaningful majority
• Revolutionary socialism is the pure Marxist thought that not just rhetorical, but violent revolution was necessary to cause the collapse of capitalism
• Revisionists, by contrast, believed in continuing the democratic process. While most Marxists were revisionary socialists, allying with other progressive groups, their progress was slow
Reaction and Revolution:
The Growth of Nationalism
• Marx and Engels proved to be a force for change that would eventually divide Europe and Asia, and have a potent influence on political debate over the role of government in economic matters
• Another force for change was nationalism, which transformed the political map of Europe in the 19th century
• Nationalist tendencies had been strong in the wake of Napoleonic domination of Europe, as the concept of civil law was adopted to suit the various peoples under French influence
• While Marx’s concepts of worker identity were abstract, national identity (rooted in language, culture, tradition, religion, etc.) was easier to cling to
• This attitude proved especially powerful to those cultures that did not have distinct nations of their own, which made managing European continental empires increasingly problematic
The Conservative Order
• After Napoleon’s defeat, the Great Powers met at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to restore order based on Austrian Prince Klemens von Metternich's (1773-1859) idea of legitimacy, known as the Concert of Europe
• This idea was based on the conservative ideals of leadership, which advocated obedience to authority, organized religion, and the social order without question
• Conservatism evoked national pride, as fidelity to country carried with it the duties of loyalty to these institutions
• To their opponents, this seemed like a means to legitimize the status quo. Still, many were persuaded to view mass movements for socialism, representative governments, or civil liberties as harmful and destablizing
• The great powers claimed that revolutionary fears gave them the right to intervention - to invade a country in revolt to restore the “rightful” monarch
Forces for Change
• By contrast, the ideals of the Enlightenment made tangible by the American and French Revolutions enhanced the idea of liberalism - that people should be as free from governmental and societal constraints as possible
• Liberals demanded freedom and equality for all, as well as freedom of assembly, speech, religion, and the press
• They also believed in laissez-faire economics and were against state intervention in monetary affairs
• Nationalism, which became a force during the French Revolution, spread to the other nations of Europe, making them hypercompetitive with one another
• Its influence varied. While nationalism could be a stabilizing force for conservatism in homogeneous nations like France, it could be destabilizing in multi-ethnic entities like the Austrian Empire
The Revolutions of 1848
• These competing influences contributed to a series of revolutions occurring in and around 1848, conterminous with proliferation of Marx’s ideas
• The French overthrew another Bourbon king (Louis-Philippe) and elected Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte president of the Second French Republic. Like his uncle, he proclaimed himself emperor years later
• In the former Holy Roman Empire, German power shifted from Habsburg Austria to Prussia, whose ruler Frederick William IV promised to work for a united Germany
• The constituent states of the Austrian Empire revolted, but were suppressed. However, Hungary won limited concessions (its own legislature and small army) that would eventually lead to a dual monarchy
• Slavic and Italian revolutions also rose and fell in this period, fueled by nationalism
• While these failures were discouraging due to the various motivations of the revolutionaries, it remained apparent that there was a consensus among the great powers to maintain small states instead of larger, more powerful nations
Nationalism in the Balkans: The Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Question
• Nationalist revolutionary sentiment also spread to Ottoman European territories. Most had remained Christian, and resented Muslim Turkish control
• Russia declared war on the Ottomans to “liberate” the south Slavic states and Constantinople, with which they shared an Eastern Orthodox kinship
• The other Great Powers, although Christian themselves, feared Russian expansion and entered the conflict alongside the Ottomans, which came to be known as the Crimean War (1853-6)
• Heavy losses and Austrian neutrality caused the Russians to sue for peace, and strengthened the independence sentiments of the old Ottoman territories and the nationalist sentiments of Germany and Italy following the withdrawal of the great powers from continental affairs
• The Crimean War destroyed the spirit of cooperation among the conservative Concert of Europe, and nationalism (and competition) became the prevailing sentiment
National Unification and the National State, 1848-1871
• The revolutions of 1848 had failed, but within 25 years many of the goals sought by liberals and nationalists during the first half of the 19th century were achieved
• Italy and Germany would become unified nations, and many European states would be led by constitutional monarchs
Nationalism and Reform: The European National State at Mid-Century
• Unlike continental Europe, Great Britain avoided revolution by expanding their voter participation, though it was extended to middle-class capitalists with a stake in the system
• The lengthy reign of Queen Victoria (r.1837-1901) led to nationalistic pride in the Victorian Era. In addition to Britain’s economic success, this period was comparatively stable
• In France, while Napoleon III was a failure as a military commander, he managed capable state reforms and rebuilt the antiquated city of Paris before the reestablishment of the republic
• The Austrian Habsburgs lost full sovereignty over Hungary, and became a dual monarchy. Still, the Austrians were able to stifle further separatist leanings (Augsleich, or “compromise”)
• Tsar Alexander II freed the serfs of Russia, but ensured their continued poverty by not effectively distributing lands
Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy
• Germany, however, remained exclusively politically conservative despite its industrial modernity. Government ministers were beholden to the Kaiser, not parliament or a constitution
• Austria-Hungary’s division into a dual monarchy was as far as ethnic minorities in the region managed to get, and Emperor Franz Joseph routinely ignored his parliament
• In Russia, Alexander’s assassination led his son and successor Alexander III (r.1881-1894) to reverse his father’s reforms. In turn, he was succeed by Nicholas II (r.1894-1917), who would be the last tsar
• Nicholas was committed to the infallibility of the tsardom, which appeared to be an antiquated belief in a rapidly modernizing Russia
• He was further challenged by a resounding defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5), which encouraged popular dissent
• Nicholas’ intransigence would prove to be his undoing
• ***Nicholas ii

Central and Eastern Europe: Persistence and the Old Order
• Germany, however, remained exclusively politically conservative despite its industrial modernity. Government ministers were beholden to the Kaiser, not parliament or a constitution
• Austria-Hungary’s division into a dual monarchy was as far as ethnic minorities in the region managed to get, and Emperor Franz Joseph routinely ignored his parliament
• In Russia, Alexander’s assassination led his son and successor Alexander III (r.1881-1894) to reverse his father’s reforms. In turn, he was succeed by Nicholas II (r.1894-1917), who would be the last tsar
• Nicholas was committed to the infallibility of the tsardom, which appeared to be an antiquated belief in a rapidly modernizing Russia
• He was further challenged by a resounding defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5), which encouraged popular dissent
• Nicholas’ intransigence would prove to be his undoing
International Rivalries and the Winds of War
• With so many powerful nationalist states on the European continent, it seemed that conflict was inevitable. The end of the Concert of Europe and the unified stance of the great powers led to a terrifying uncertainty
• In response to this, Germany and France, powerful enemies since the 1870 war, made defensive alliances with their neighbors
• These alliances became the source of threats in international discourse, as each nation would be obliged to join a conflict between faraway powers
• There was no shortage of the potential for hostilities, especially in the Balkan peninsula, whose nationalist desires had not been satisfied
• While the alliances were ostensibly created to prevent war, the threat of mutually assured destruction was not enough to prevent it
• Before 1870, the industrialization that was transforming western and central Europe and the United States did not extend to any significant way to the rest of the world
• Even in eastern Europe, industrialization lagged far behind. Russia, for example, was still largely rural and agricultural, ruled by an autocratic regime that preferred to keep the peasants in serfdom
• In other parts of the world where they had established control, newly industrialized European states pursued a deliberate policy of preventing the growth of mechanized industry
• For example, in the 18th century India had been one of the world’s greatest exporters of cotton cloth produced by hand labor. When British control was established, inexpensive textiles were being produced across the industrialized world
• Instead of exporting these techniques to India, the British preferred to keep the newly unemployed cotton weavers in their crown colony growing raw materials for export home
• In addition to streamlining their process, the potential threat of technological development in their colonies was stymied
Ford Assembly Line, 1913
• During the 19th century working class organizations maintained that women should remain at home to bear and nurture children; this was a holdover from pre-Industrial times
• In reality (as it was before) women were crucial contributors to the global and home economies, as workers and consumers
• The Second Industrial Revolution opened the door to new jobs for women. The development of larger industrial plants and the expansion of government services created many service and white-collar jobs
• The increased demand for white-collar workers at relatively low wages coupled with a shortage of male workers led employers to hire women in droves
• Women found new opportunities as telephone operators, typists, secretaries, and clerks. Compulsory education necessitated more teachers, and the development of modern hospital services opened the way for an increase in nurses
• Still, many were relegated to menial jobs in sweatshops. Even in the more prestigious occupations, their roles were engendered to ensure subordination
New Products
• The first major change brought about in this period was the substitution of steel for iron. New methods of shaping steel made it useful for constructing lighter, smaller, and faster machines and engines, as well as railways, ships, and armaments
• Electricity was a major new form of energy that could be easily converted into other types of energy (light, heat, motion) and moved relatively effortlessly through space over wires
• It could be generated via a variety of means, including hydroelectric plants and coal-fired steam-generating plants that could connect homes and factories to a single source of power
• Electricity spawned a number of inventions: electric lights, streetcars, subways, and new factory machines appeared in major cities by the 1880s. By 1901, the radio, telephone, and the internal combustion engine had not only been invented, but quickly developed for mass consumption
• Within two decades, automobiles, petroleum-powered ocean liners, and even airplanes went from the extraordinary to the commonplace
New Patterns
• Industrial production grew rapidly at this time because of the greatly increased sales of manufactured goods
• An increase in real wages for workers after 1870, combined with lower prices for manufactured goods because of reduced transportation costs, made it easier for Europeans and Americans to buy consumer products
• In the cities, the first department stores began to sell a host of new items. The desire to own sewing machines, clocks, bicycles, etc., was rapidly generating a new consumer ethic that has been a crucial part of the modern economy
• Between 1870 and 1914, Germany replaced Great Britain as the industrial leader of Europe. Still, western and central Europe constituted an industrial core that saw an increasing standard of living
• Much of the rest of Europe, mostly the east and south, remained largely agricultural and relegated by the industrial countries to providing food and raw materials (though not to the extent that was demanded of the overseas colonies of Europe)
The Spread of Industrialization
• After 1870, industrialization began to spread outside its strategically defined borders, for the creation of wealth demanded international market capacity
• Especially notable was its rapid development (fostered by governments) in Russia and Japan
• A surge of industrialization began in Russia in the 1890s under the guiding hand of Sergei Witte, the forward-thinking minister of finance under Tsars Alexander III and Nicholas II
• Witte facilitated the growth of Russian industry, making it the 4th-largest producer of steel and the greatest producer of oil by the end of his program
• In Japan, the imperial government took the lead in promoting industry, financing factories, railroads, and foreign education
• Both nations, as a result of their desire to Westernize, would emerge as competitors with the West (and with each other)
The Unification of Italy
The Unification of Germany
• In the German states, after the failure of the 1848 revolutions Germans increasingly looked to Prussia to leadership
• Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck advocated Realpolitik, saying, “Not by speeches and majorities will the great questions of the day be decided – that was the mistake of 1848-1849 – but by iron and blood.”
• Military conquests led to the integration of the northern German states, whose populations preferred a united Germany to their particular principalities
• France was wary of a strong German neighbor, and the Franco-Prussian war began in 1870. It was over within a few months, and Prussian King William I was declared Kaiser of the Second Reich (the first being the Holy Roman Empire)
• Germany then turned its resources to industrialization, becoming the greatest power on the European continent
The European State, 1871-1914
• Throughout much of Europe by 1870, the national state had become the focus of popular loyalties. Only in the Russian Empire, eastern Europe, Austria-Hungary, and Ireland did national groups still struggle for independence
• Within the major European states, considerable progress was made in achieving liberal practices such as constitutions and parliaments, but it was largely in the western European states that mass politics became a reality
• Reforms encouraged the expansion of political democracy through voting rights for men and the creation of mass political parties
• At the same time, however, similar reforms were strongly resisted in parts of Europe where the old political forces remained strong
Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy
• By 1871, Great Britain had a functioning two-party (Liberal and Conservative) parliamentary system, in which each party competed for the inclusion of different groups in the voting process
• Despite this, both parties were dominated by aristocratic landowners and upper-class businessmen. This alienation led to the 1900 formation of the Labour Party, which was dedicated to working-class interests and composed of working-class members
• This development helped hasten all parties’ steps towards the eventual formation of the British welfare state
• In France, the confusion that ensued after the collapse of the Second Empire under Napoleon III finally ended with the Third French Republic, which lasted 65 years
• France’s parliamentary system was weak, however, because the existence of a dozen political parties forced a coalition government.The Third Republic was notorious for changes in government proportion
• Nevertheless, by 1914 the Third Republic was accepted as the legitimate ruling body of France
Watt Steam Engine
Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte
Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels
Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich
by Philipp Veit
• The Italians were the first to benefit from the collapse of the Concert of Europe, and began a campaign to unite their small component states
• Previously, the governments of the Italian city-states (Venice, Naples, Florence, and the Papal States) had regarded each other more as rivals than as constituents of an Italian nation
• The people, however, desired nationhood (and international relevance), and threw their support behind the unification-minded leadership of Piedmont King Victor Emmanuel II
• The campaigns of unificationists Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi proved stronger than that of the minor nobles, and they united their conquests
• They overcame the complexities of the Roman Question (the temporal vs. the spiritual role of Papal Rome) and united in 1870 with Rome as the capital
18 January 1871: The proclamation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles. Bismarck appears in white
Victoria I, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and Empress of India
Tsar Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias
Depiction of the 1854 Battle of Balaklava, made famous by Alfred, Lord Tennyson's famous poem
The Charge of the Light Brigade
depicting the British engagement of Russian forces
The Paris Commune of 1871 was nearly a de facto secession from the rest of the country
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