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Neural Pathophysiology

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by

Katrina Dielman

on 19 April 2016

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Transcript of Neural Pathophysiology

Dan & Karen - Day 38
Photo by Kathy Aney of E.O.
Primary Injury Often
Followed by Secondary Injury
Signs & Symptoms
Depend Upon Many Factors
Limited Room Inside the Skull
Decreased LOC
Altered Motor Function
Altered Sensation
Brain
CNS Infections
Principles of Neural Pathophysiology
Responses to
Neural Pathophysiology
Specific
Neural Alterations
Neural Pathophysiology
NRS 322 Pathophysiology II
1. Limited room inside the skull
2.

Signs & symptoms
depend upon many factors
3.

Primary injury
is often followed by a
secondary injury
1. Decreased LOC
2.
Altered
sensation
3.
Altered
motor function
1. Brain
2. CNS Infections
3. Spinal Cord
4. Peripheral Neuropathies
http://www.caringbridge.org/visit/karenlangependleton
Karen goes home!
Three components inside the skull:
1. Brain tissue = 80%
2. Blood = 10%
3. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) = 10%
Produced @ 20 mL/hr
CO2 = potent vasodilator!
ICP
Normal

< 15 mmHg
Elevated
> 20 mmHg
CPP = MAP - ICP
CPP goal = 60-70
Impaired
< 60 mmHg
Karen sings the National Anthem at Round-Up
MAP = SBP + 2 (DBP)
3
e.g., Location of alteration
Ischemic Injury to Neurons
Measuring ICP
Ischemia!
Brain
Spinal Cord & Peripheral Neurons
Spinal Cord
Peripheral
Neuropathies
Most sensitive indicator!!
Copstead, L. & Banasik, J. (2013).
Pathophysiology
(5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Felver, L. (2013). Online Materials:
PROP- Pathophysiology online.
Retrieved from https://evolve.elsevier.com/

Giddens, J. (2013).
Concepts for nursing practice
(1st ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Lehne, R. (2013).
Pharmacology for nursing care
(8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.

Lewis. S., Dirksen, S., Heitkemper, M., Bucher, L., & Camera, I. (2011).
Medical surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems.
St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

YouTube videos embedded on some slides.
References
1. Hematoma
2. Cerebrovascular Disease
3. Parkinson's Disease
4. Seizure Disorders
Brain
& Spinal Cord
1. Multiple Sclerosis
Demyelination
of axons in the CNS, both brain and spinal cord
Multiple areas of scarring -
sclerosis
1. Spinal Cord Injury - SCI
2. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - ALS
Hematoma
Cerebrovascular Disease
CVA
Ischemic
TIA versus Stroke
Hemorrhagic
Seizure Disorders
Parkinson's Disease
Extrapyramidal
pathway disruption
Loss of involuntary motor coordination
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
SCI - Autonomic Dysreflexia
www.scinurse.org
cjonline.com
Damage to Extremities from Meningococcal Bacteria
Meningitis
Encephalitis
1. Meningitis
- Inflammation of the Meninges
Bacterial
Viral
Fungal
2. Encephalitis
- Inflammation of the Brain
Bacterial
Viral
Fungal
www.med.harvard.edu
Herpes simplex virus - HSV
Attacks the limbic system of the brain
www.meningitis-angels.org
Acyclovir
for treatment
www.medscape.org
Effects of stroke damage by hemisphere
Full transcript