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Chapter 17: The Progressive Era

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Eileen Brown

on 11 January 2017

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Transcript of Chapter 17: The Progressive Era

Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 had vague wording
Difficult to enforce
T.R. - Trusts aren't that bad except when they hurt public interests
Filed antitrust suits
Won some and was able to break them up
Origins of Progressivism
Late 19th Century
Political, economic, and social changes
Reforms to labor and voting rights
Women in Public Life
Social and economic changes = women as workers and reformers
Teddy Roosevelt's Square Deal
President who wanted national reforms
Pure Food and Drug Act
Conservation Programs
Progressivism Under Taft
Split in the Republic Party
Third Party - Bull Moose Party

Chapter 17: The Progressive Era
Fredrick Winslow Taylor
Time and motion studies to improve efficiency
Scientific management
Henry Ford
Assembly lines
People become the machines
The Progressive Movement:
Restoring economic opportunities and correcting injustices
Protecting Social Welfare

Community centers, churches, and social services
Promoting Moral Improvement

Poverty and other social problems were caused by immorality
Creating Economic Reform

Panic of 1893 caused some to question capitalism
Exposing corrupt business practices
Fostering Efficiency

Society (workplaces) as a whole will be made better by using scientific principles
Libraries, courses, athletic opportunities
Salvation Army:
Opened soup kitchens and nurseries; stressed hard work and temperance
Florence Kelley
Advocated for improving the lives of women and children
Illinois Factory Act - 1893
Prohibited child labor and shorten working hours for women
Woman's Christian Temperance Union:
The banning of alcoholic beverages
Opened kindergartens, visited prisons and asylums, women's suffrage
Carrie Nation
Eugene V. Debs
(American Railway Union)
1901 - Socialist Party of America
Capitalism led to an uneven balance in society
Journalists wrote about social inequalities and corrupt businesses
Would rather focus on dragging up the muck from the gutter (Pilgrim's Progress)
Theodore Roosevelt speech 1906
McClure's Magazine
Four Goals of the Progressive Era:

Promoting Social Welfare
Promoting Moral Improvement
Creating Economic Reform
Fostering Efficiency
Cleaning Up Local Government
Need to cancel out the power of the political machines
Commission System - experts head a city department and are elected by the people
Council-Manager - city council (elected by the people) would appoint a qualified person to manage the city departments
Regulation needed of railroad, mines, mills, telephone companies
Utilities should be owned by cities not private companies
Reform Politicians:
Mayors of Detroit and Cleveland
Gov. Robert M. La Follette
- WI
Corporations shouldn't be in politics
Regulation of the railroads
Tax reform
Reforming Elections
Citizens could put an
on a ballot
A bill originated (written) by the people not lawmakers
Initiative could be voted on by a
Workers Rights
Movement to end child labor
Florence Kelley
Why hire children?
Families needed everyone to work; wages were low
1908 Muller v. Oregon - poor working women needed protection companies
10 hour work day
Protect the health of women
More laws passed for 10 hour workdays and death benefits
Seventeenth Amendment
- direct election of senators - 1913
Political official could be
from elected positions
Removed from office and have to face another election
National Child Labor Committee
- 1904
Investigated work conditions
Photograph exhibitions (
Lewis Hine
Labor unions stated that child labor lowered wages for everyone
Women found jobs in offices, stores, and classrooms
Required high school education
1890 - women out numbered men in h.s. graduation
Business schools opened
Book-keeping, stenographers, typists
Women in Public Life

Women in the Workforce
The turn of the century - not a lot of changes to women who work on farms
Same amount of chores
New inventions did make work slightly easier
Many labor unions excluded women
Unskilled positions
Paid less than men
(1900 - one in five women had a job)
Women in Higher Education
Colleges for women opened
Vassar, Smith, Wellesley

Women and Reform
Industrial workers wanted health and safety reforms
Women had no political rights = reforms focused on social issues
Like what?
Women's Suffrage
1869 -
Susan B. Anthony
and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
National Women Suffrage Association (NWSA)
- the right to vote
Disputes over the 15th Amendment with in the suffrage movement
1. Change state legislatures
Only four states
Teddy Roosevelt's Square Deal

Theodore Roosevelt
Vice President for McKinley
1901 becomes president
Early start in NY politics
2. Court cases to test the 14th Amendment
Were women citizens?
3. National constitutional amendment
1875 Supreme Court - yes but that doesn't mean you get the right to vote
1902 Coal Strike
PA coal miners (140,000)
Pay raise, lower work hours, unionize
No bargaining
Five months late coal is running low
T.R. steps in and makes both sides work with an arbitration commission

T.R.'s political stance: the federal gov't CAN get involved in domestic issues
What does this mean?

By 1900 trusts controlled most U.S. industries
Unscrupulous business practices
What is a trust?
Health and the Environment
Upton Sinclair - The Jungle
Exposed unhealthy conditions
The public demands truth
T.R. appointed a commission to investigate the meatpacking industry
Meat Inspection Act of 1906
Strict requirements
Federal gov't inspects ...
Meat that crosses state lines
Packing plants
Railroad Regulation
1887 - Interstate Commerce Act
Interstate Commerce Commission had little power
Federal intervention
Elkins Act of 1903
Hepburn Act of 1906
Pure Food and Drug Act - 1906
Medicine could contain cocaine, opium, or alcohol
Chemist of the Dept. of Agriculture lectured about the preservatives put into food
The Act allowed for federal inspection of food and medicine
No sale of contaminated foods and medicine
The contents had to be listed truthfully
Conservation and Natural Resources:
Early attempts to protect the environment
1887 - The U.S. Forest Bureau
45 million acres set aside for a national reserve
Land was destroyed
T.R. - the natural resources were not endless
John Muir convinced T.R. to set aside 148 million acres of forest reserve
T.R. also set aside water-power sites, land for a geological survey, wildlife sanctuaries, and national parks
Roosevelt and Civil Rights:
Failed to support general civil rights reforms
Some appointments of African Americans to low ranking political offices
Good-will dinner with
Booker T. Washington
W. E. B. Du Bois
- disappointed and unhappy with the progressive movement
Indifferent to racial justice
1909 - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Both black and white reformers
Goal = equality among races
Cities had no proper way of disposing of waste
Cattle ranching, mining, farming, logging
Gifford Pinchot was made head of the U.S. Forest Service - 1905
- some areas would be preserved and some would be developed for the common good
With T.R. developed water and irrigation projects
Progressivism Under Taft
Roosevelt decided not to run for reelection in 1908
Picked William Howard Taft (Secretary of War)
Beat William Jennings Bryan
Didn't want to expand on T.R.'s reforms
Successful at trustbusting
Campaign promise of lowering tariffs
What is a tariff?
Taft's Secretary of the Interior takes a million acres of reserved land and makes it available to the public
Exposed to the public
Pinchot speaks to Congress
Taft sides with Secretary of the Interior and fires Pinchot
The Republican party splits
1910 - T.R. gives a speech on New Nationalism
The federal government would exert its power for the welfare of the people
1912 - T.R. decided to run for President
Republican progressives formed a new third party
The Bull Moose Party
Election of 1912
Republicans - Taft
T.R. for the Bull Moose Party
Democratic candidate - Woodrow Wilson
NJ governor
Progressive platform -
New Freedom
stronger anti-trust laws, banking reform, and reduced tariffs
The Socialist Party - Eugene V. Debs
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
- 1909 tax regulations that failed to significantly reduce tariffs on imported manufactured goods
Combining two bills with opposite goals
This angered his party (R)
The Clayton Antitrust Act - 1914
Strengthen Sherman Antitrust Act
Corporations can not acquire stock of another if it is going to cause a monopoly
What is a monopoly?
Federal Trade Commission Act - 1914
FTC was a watchdog agency
Investigate violations
Corporations had to submit reports
Unions and farm organizations have the right to exist
Can't be subject to antitrust laws
A New Tax System
1913 Special session of Congress
Wilson argued for an act that would lower tariff rates
Lobbyists for manufacturers urged the Senate to vote against
Wilson appealed to the public
Voters need to tell their Senator what to do
Tariffs were lowered
Wilson's New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson (D)
Grew up in the South; Governor of NJ
Supported progressive legislation
Wanted to break the "wall of privilege"
Trusts, tariffs, and high finance
Federal Income Tax
Government needed to replace revenue lost with the lowering of tariffs
1913 - Sixteenth Amendment - graduated federal income tax
taxed individual earnings and corporate profits
the larger the income the higher the tax
Federal Reserve System
Federal Reserve Act - 1913
Reforms currency and banking laws
Controls U.S. money supply and the availability of credit in the country
Limits of Progressivism
Wilson's campaign promises won him the support of the NAACP
Wilson opposed federal anti lynching legislation
Wilson supported segregated facilities
Offices in DC became segregated (again)
Women Win Suffrage
State by state approval
1910 women had only gotten the vote in WY, UT, WA, ID and CO
More women (college educated) had joined and went door to door
Women speaking in public was a spectacle
More people were stopping to listen
Carrie Chapman Catt
- president pf NAWSA
Not in favor of extreme behavior, content to wait it out
Lucy Burns and Alice Paul wanted immediate change - go for the amendment
Asked to leave NAWSA and started NWP
Held marches and rallies, began picketing the White House
Problem - America just joined the war
Jailed on trumped up charges
Hunger strike in prison
The nineteenth amendment 1920
Women had helped the war effort
The right to vote didn't change much
Loss of a unifying cause
Racial etiquette
What is this?
Violent response by whites if not followed
B/t 1880-90 lynching peaked
1900s A lot of African Americans left the South
Wasn't much of a solution

1902 -
National Reclamation Act
- government assistance for irrigation projects
Dry areas can now support farms
Farms need workers ... so what happens?
Laborers were forced into
debt peonage

The worker is forced into a form of slavery until they could work off their debt
1911 - Supreme Court declares it a violation of the 13th Amendment
T.R.'s opinion: Federal government has a responsibility for national welfare
If states can't handle an issue the government should step in
Use the office of President as a
bully pulpit

a good platform to promote ideas from
influence the news media and shape legislation
A Square Deal
- various progressive reforms sponsored by Roosevelt
1896 - National Association of Colored Women (NACW)
Ida B. Wells
- Wrote in depth about lynching
Child care, job training, wage equality, social work
1890 - National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
Anthony, Lucy Stone, Carrie Chapman Catt
Natural disasters led to reforms and changes in the government
Why did it take natural disasters to make these government changes?
25% of women worked in manufacturing
Garment industry
Women worked as domestics
No formal training or education
Cooks, laundresses, cleaners, maids, nannies
Full transcript