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Science and the Scientific Method...
Transcript of Science and the Scientific Method...
Two Types of Information:
Objective vs. Subjective
= data that is measurable
The Scientific Method
Step 1. Make an observation
Goal and Use of Science
Goal = to better explain and understand the natural world
Step 3. Test hypothesis
= collect objective data
Step 4. Analyze Results
= Compare objective data to
= an educated guess based on previous experience or knowledge
Science is the collection and analysis of objective data.
Record data about variables in existing, natural systems
Manipulate existing systems so that all variables are constant except one
Which kind is better?
Easier set-up vs. complex set-up
Step 6. Peer Review and Publish
Do scientists always agree?
Retest Under New Conditions
= a scientifically accepted principle that is supported by a large body of evidence
Creativity and the Scientific Method?
- making observations
- forming hypotheses
- designing experiments
- interpreting data
What Science is not...
- absolute proof (support or refute only)
Some people get more colds than other people.
data that is influenced by opinion, values, morals, faith, aesthetics
Step 2. Create a hypothesis
Characteristics of a good scientific hypothesis:
Use = to help solve problems
Look for relationships among variables
Determine affect of that one variable
$ vs. $$$
"Real World" vs. Laboratory
Correlation vs. Cause and Effect
Correlation vs. Cause and Effect Relationships
Correlation = two variables change in a related way
--> one goes up and the other goes up
--> or, one goes up and the other goes down
Cause and Effect = one variable causes (or is the reason why) the other variable to change
Use statistics to help here...
Two possible outcomes -->
Doesn't Match = Revise Hypothesis
--> Go back to step 3
--> Go back to step 2...
1. methods and study design
makes science "self correcting"
don't repeat work unnecessarily
Does disagreement mean they don't know what they are doing??
Peer Review & Publish cont.
1. Cell Theory
2. Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
Common vs. Scientific Meaning of Theory
Common = theory is a wild guess
Scientific = theory is best testable explanation; has lots of data for support
- anecdotal observations (stories)
- data that is false (accidental or manipulated)
- the TRUTH
In a group,
create a hypothesis
list four specific kinds of data
you would collect to test your hypothesis.
more like a scientific hypothesis...