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Copy of Copy of Brain Plasticity
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Brain Plasticity
Packed with 100 billion nerve cells, the brain provides humans with the ability to take in and learn new information
The brain is capable of re-organizing itself to function after trauma or a brain injury
Brain: ability to learn and take in new information
“Elastic” – to drive or propel
"Plastic” – molded or formed Brain Plasticity "The brain" Brain plasticity – associated with memory, behaviour change, recovery and addiction
Understanding how these factors influence the brain and a persons cognition is:
Crucial to understand behaviour
Aids in the diagnosis and development of treatments for disorders Brain Plasticity
& Psychology What is
Brain Plasticity? The brain’s capacity/ability to change throughout life
For individuals who suffer from neurological disorders, brain plasticity gives the hope of recovery
If the brain was not plastic, we wont have the ability to adapt to different environment and learn new things
Neuroplasticity occurs in the brain at the beginning of life, and throughout adulthood (Lifespan) Early Brain
Development "Brain Development" Infancy: The brain first forms as a crest of cells from which the neurons will emerge. Next, the major regions of the brain will begin to take shape
Neurons will begin to migrate from the places they were originally created, to their final positions in the brain.
brain defects occurs when these processes occur incorrectly, whether it be due to disease, genetic mutation,
or even chemal exposure. Childhood:
In this stage, a different type of plasticity takes precedence: a sculpting process called, neural “pruning.” The brain now has many more neurons than it needs, and the excess ones must be pruned away.
Experience will determine which neurons are pruned: Unused or rarely used pathways will disappear, while heavily utilized pathways will grow and elaborate. Adolescent Brain Development Birth-First year
During adolescence, pruning will be focused in this area
Many of the difficulties of adolescence (such as impulsiveness, rebellion, poor judgement, and mood swings) are associated with an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex (2001) "Teenage Brain" Neuron Repair
Neurogenesis - “birth of new neurons.”
Neurogenesis is limited by physical activity, environmental conditions and hormones Brain Plasticity in
Adulthood & Old Age
• Adult brain = lower rate of recovery from neurological illnesses
• Functional Compensatory Plasticity, refers to the ability of some adults in research settings to match their younger counterparts by activating additional brain regions that young and low performing older adults do not activate Research Proves
Brain Plasticity Studies of Recovery from Stroke
in Adults In 2005, Mosch et al. study adults and children with similar stroke lesions:
• Compared neurological, behavioral and social outcomes between
the two groups
• Where children showed normal speech/language ratings, their adult
counterparts were borderline impaired. Impairments in social
function were associated with the hemispheric side of damaging in
adults, but not children
• Shows a conflict in research involving plasticity and age Conclusion What do these studies show? Brain plasticity is beneficial to the disabled but it is also important to people with completely healthy, functioning brains and bodies
Only the future will tell where this field will lead—though, the possibilities are endless! References used Chapman, S.B., Max, J.E., Gamino, J.F., McGlothlin, J.H., Cliff, S.N. (2003, July 29). Discourse plasticity in children after stroke: age at injury and lesion effects. Pediatric Neurology, 1, 34-41.
Gaser, C., Schlaug, G. (2003, October 8). Brain Structures Differ between Musicians and Non-Musicians. The Journal of Neuroscience, 23(27), 9240-9245.
Kolb, B., Muhammad, A., & Gibb, R. (2010). Searching for factors underlying cerebral plasticity in the normal and injured brain. Journal of Communication Disorders, 44(5), 503-514.
Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I.Q. (1998). Brain plasticity and behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 43-64.
Max, J.E., Bruce, M., Keatley, E., Delis, D. (2010, December 1) Pediatric Stroke: Plasticity, Vulnerability, and Age of Lesion Onset. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 22(1), 30-39.
Maguire, E.A., Woollett, K., & Spiers, H.G. (2006). London Taxi Drivers and bus Drivers: A Structural MRI and
Neuropsychological Analysis. Hippocampus, 16, 1091-1101.
Mechelli, A., Crinion J.T., Noppeney, U., O’Doherty, J., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R.S., & Price, C.T. (2004, October 13). Neurolinguistics: Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature, 431, 757. Mosch, S.C., Max, J.E., Tranel, D. (2005, March 18). A matched lesion analysis of childhood versus adult-onset brain injury due to unilateral stroke: another perspective on neural plasticity and recovery of social functioning. Cognitive Behavioral Neurology, 1, 5-17.
Restak, R., Grubin, D. (2001, October 15). The Secret Life of the Brain. Toronto: Joseph Henry Press. Picture References “Brain Development” retrieved: February 5, 2012, from: http://www.reclaiming.com/content/node/210
“Teenage Brain” retrieved: February 5, 2012, from http://www.weteachwelearn.org/2010/05/teaching-the-teen-brain/
“The Brain” retrieved: February 5, 2012, from http://www.clker.com/clipart- cartoon-owl.html by: Amesha Gray, Bolu Fowodu, Jhammal Brady, Paola Bruno The Mutable Brain by Marguerite Holloway Brief Summary of Article Over the years, it was believed that the human brain was a concrete entity that it stays the same over time
Michael Merzenich: “the brain is like a vast floodplain, it moves around depending on how our experiences in life push it”
Brain: Constructed to change
Brain Plasticity: “the capacity of the nervous system to change its structure and, its function over a lifetime, in reaction to environmental diversity”
Types of Neuroplasicity
Two main forms of plasticity are: Synaptic plasticity and Neurogenesis.
Synaptic plasticity – when engaged in new learning and experience, the brain establishes neural pathways. The neurons in a neural pathway communicate with each other at a meeting point, the synapse. Every time new knowledge is acquired (through repeated practice), synaptic communication or transmission is enhanced.
Neurogenesis - Whereas synaptic plasticity is achieved through enhancing communication at the synaptic site between existing neurons, Neurogenesis refers to the birth of new neurons in the brain. A little History on Brain Plasticity 1920s - Karl Lashley, studied motor cortex of monkey
Other scientists – Brain is fixed and unchangeable
1980s: Michael Merzenich – supported Lashley’s claims
-This concluded that no area of the brain goes unused Basics of the Brain
-The brain is the control center of the human nervous system
-The major components of the brain are
2) The cerebellum
3) The brain stem The End A story about little Jody Miller.... Discussion Question
Do you believe that neuroplasticity can completely gain function in an area in the brain that has been injured, damaged, or only partially functional?
Do you think the brain compensation for areas that have damage, injury or only are partially functional would affect other areas due to neglect of areas that function?