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Teaching the Growing Child

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Kylie Brown

on 30 October 2016

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Transcript of Teaching the Growing Child

Moral Development
Moral development is heavily influenced by the cultural context (Oakley, 2010)
Student Centric Philosophy
'Cognitive' comes from the Latin word 'cognoscene' and means 'to know'
(Oakley, 2004)
Cognitive Development
Teaching Practices:
5 years of age
Teaching the Growing Child
Jean Piaget
Lev Vygotsky
Frequent exposure to moral concepts assists moral development and behaviours (Stephens, 2009)
Piaget & Kohlberg
Turiel's Moral Domain Theory
Cognitive Development
Teaching Practices:
10 years of age
Moral Development
Teaching Practices:
5 years of age
Give students opportunities to develop a positive classroom culture by discussing rules, consequences and boundaries (Marcom Projects, 2010)
Moral Development
Teaching Practices:
10 years of age
by Kylie Brown
Link new knowledge to prior knowledge (Oakley, 2004)
Use concrete materials (Minton, 2012)
Time to explore and to construct new understandings (Oakley, 2004)
Opportunities to collaborate, discuss and share (Stephens, 2009)
Learning is scaffolded by the teacher who gradually withdraws from learning tasks (Oakley, 2004)

Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget
Lev Vygotsky
Jerome Bruner
Understands though the senses and muscles.
Understands through language, and symbolic representation
Egocentric
Unable to conserve

Understands through concrete materials
Recognises other perspectives
Able to conserve


Understands using abstract thought
Able to infer, reason and hypothesis.
Require concrete materials less


(psychohawks, 2010-a; Oakley, 2004)
Link new knowledge to prior knowledge (Daniels & Shumow, 2003)
Provide many language opportunities (Oakley, 2004)
Encourage self-talk in the classroom (Oakley, 2004)
Provide classification, ordering, symbolic and role-play activities (Oakley, 2004)
Design play based learning experiences (Oakley, 2004)
Practice listening and engaging in discussions (Stephens, 2009)
Jean Piaget, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AJean_Piaget_in_Ann_Arbor.png.
Lev Vygotsky, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ALev_Vygotsky_1896-1934.jpg
Jerome Bruner, n.d. http://www.educationupdate.com/archives/2005/Nov/html/col-jeromebutler.html
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor
Birth - 2 years
Preoperational
2 - 7 years
Concrete Operational
7 - 11 years
Formal Operational
11 years - adult
Baby on back, 2013. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Baby_on_Back.jpg
Portrait of a boy, 2013. http://pixabay.com/en/child-cute-boy-portrait-kid-219942/
Young girl, 2014. https://www.flickr.com/photos/adam_jones/13240325565/
Young man, 2009. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait-as-an-artist-as-a-young-man.jpg
Teaching Model Based on Vygotsky's Theory, 1998 http://web.mnstate.edu/smithb/Psych_TL/HD/Lesson3/PsychTopics/ZPD.html
Target new information just above student's current ability
Link new information to prior understandings
Gradually withdraw as learning occurs
Take cultural context into account
Oakley, 2004

Piaget's Stages of Moral Development
Heteronomous

Autonomous

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Pre-conventional
From 9 years
Birth to approx. 9 years
Stage 3

Stage 5
Stage 6
Stage 2

Stage 1

Stage 4
Conventional
Post Conventional
< 9 years
Early adolescence
Adulthood
Marcom Projects, 2010
Moral
Psychological
Social
The three components develop parallel to one another
Marcom Projects, 2010
Literature with dilemmas helps children see another point of view and promotes caring behaviours
Games can also reinforce moral concepts such as 'fairness'
Collaborative experiences enable students to practice co-operative skills and children from 10 years to develop benevolence (Davies, 2010).
Teachers can promote empathy (Schumaker & Heckel, 2007 and improve classroom behaviours by strengthening the teacher-student relationship (Oliver & Wehby, 2010)
Role play allows children to explore other points of view and cultures, important to developing perspective.
Young children display high sociability when seen as capable by adults (Oakley, 2010)
Children playing marbles, 2006. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Children_marbles.jpg
Skull kid with Majora's mask costume, 2013 http://queenofthe.deviantart.com/art/Skull-kid-with-Majora-s-Mask-costume-370445925
Kids playing dress-ups, 2012. https://www.flickr.com/photos/lynlomasi/7782131434/
Reading to children, 2005. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AUS_Navy_050302-N-1113S-004_Yeoman_3rd_Class_Inez_Knight%2C_assigned_to_the_Administration_Department_on_board_U.S._Naval_Air_Facility_Atsugi%2C_Japan%2C_reads_to_a_first-grade_class.jpg
Children helping, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AChildren_working.JPG
Children building together, n.d. feed://www.speedofcreativity.org/search/john+dewey/feed/rss2/
Teaching assistant, n.d. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teaching_assistant
India: Class discussion outside, 2012. https://www.flickr.com/photos/gpforeducation/8489145087/
Jean Piaget, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AJean_Piaget_in_Ann_Arbor.png
Jean Piaget
Lawrence
Kohlberg
Lawrence Kohlberg, n.d. http://www.simplypsychology.org/kohlberg.html
Elliot Turiel, n.d. http://psychology.berkeley.edu/people/elliot-turiel
Elliot Turiel

behaviour
thinking
feeling
"Pedagogy must be oriented not to the yesterday, but to the tomorrow of the child’s development".
"Whether or not instruction is individual, learning is!"
(Wadsworth, 1978 as cited in Webb, 2008, p95
(Vygotsky, as cited by Shotter, n.d.)
"What a child can do in co-operation today he can do alone tomorrow"
(Vygotsky)
"A healthy parent-child bond is a critical and necessary part of the equation that leads to optimal moral functioning" (Shumaker & Heckel, 2007, p21)
A child-centred environment scaffolds children's learning for students to construct their own knowledge and discover their own motives and feelings (Marcom projects, 2010)
Tasks and information set too high or too low can lead to student failure and de-motivation (Oakley, 2004) affecting learning outcomes (Rimm-Kaufman, n.d.)
Why knowing Child Development is important

Kids playing tin can phone, n.d. http://marketingwiththepros.com/go/page/61/
Co-created colour wheel, 2013. http://mrsmclennan.blogspot.com.au/2013/02/the-kids-have-been-very-interested-in.html
Sock puppet, 2011. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sock-puppet.jpg
Playing with big blocks, 2010. https://www.flickr.com/photos/emeryjl/4548149726/
Cusinaire rods, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cuisenaire_zotzak.jpg
Helping gifted students, n.d. http://gradelearning.ca/blog/2014/01/23/helping-gifted-students/
Multi-age classroom, n.d. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-age_classroom
Four metric instruments, n.d. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Introduction_to_the_metric_system
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