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Rates of Reaction: HCl & Marble Chips

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on 15 December 2014

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Transcript of Rates of Reaction: HCl & Marble Chips

Rates of Reaction: Hydrochloric Acid & Marble Chips
The Experiment
The aim of this experiment is to find out how different variables
affect the rate at which the reaction between Marble chips (CaCO ) and
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) takes place. There are many variables that
affect the rate of this reaction such as:

1. Concentration
2. Temperature

3. Catalyst

4. Surface area


Exothermic Reactions
This reaction between marble chips (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid is an exothermic reaction. These are reactions that transfer energy to the surroundings.

The energy is usually transferred as heat energy, causing the reaction mixture and its surroundings to become hotter. The temperature increase can be detected using a thermometer.

Some other examples of exothermic reactions are:
* burning
* neutralization reactions between acids and alkalis
* the reaction between water and calcium oxide

Method
In this experiment there will be different variables. These are:
Independent
- The concentration of the hydrochloric acid.
Dependent
- Amount of carbon dioxide produced.
Control
- Temperature, surface area, time given, amount of marble chips, amount of hydrochloric acid, same apparatus
Results Graph
This is an example of the results graph for this experiment.
Equations
The symbol word and symbol equations for this experiment are:

hydrochoric acid + calcium carbonate calcuim chloride + water + carbon dioxide

2HCl + CaCo3 CaCl2 + H2O + CO2


Catalyst
Catalysts increase the rate of reaction without being used up. They do this by lowering the activation energy needed. With a catalyst, more collisions result in a reaction, so the rate of reaction increases. Different reactions need different catalysts.
Catalysts are important in industry because they reduce costs.

Collision Theory
For the chemical reaction to occur, the reactant particles must collide. Collisions with too little energy do not produce reactions. The collision must have enough energy for the particles to react. The minimum energy needed for particles to react is called the activation energy.
Results Table
This is an example of the results table for this experiment.
If the concentration of a dissolved reactant is increased, or the pressure of a reacting gas is increased:
* There are more reactant particles in the same volume
* There is a greater chance of the particles colliding
The rate of reaction increases
Concentration
Temperature
If the temperature is increased:
* The reactant particles move more quickly
* More particles have the activation energy or greater
* The particles collide more often, and more of the collisions result in a reaction
The rate of reaction increases
Surface Area
If a solid reactant is broken into small pieces or ground into a powder:
* Its surface area is increased
* More particles are exposed to the other reactant
* There is a greater chance of the particles colliding
The rate of reaction increases
This is a diagram of how the experiment will be set up.
Method
When the apparatus has been set up as shown earlier, 50 ml of the acid solution will be measured using a measuring cylinder.

This will be poured into a conical flask. 3g of powdered CaCO chips will be weighed out using a top pan balance. This will be put into the conical flask and the rubber bung attached to the syringe will be put over it immediately afterwords.

At the same time the stopwatch will be started. After 2 minutes the amount of CO2 released will be recorded by looking at the measurement on the up-turned measuring cylinder.

The experiment will be repeated and carried out in the same way; only the concentration will be changed.
Rates of Reaction
This is the equation used to calculate the rate of reaction of an experiment.
For example, if 24 cm3 of carbon dioxide is produced in two minutes, the mean rate of reaction = 24 ÷ 2 = 12 cm3 carbon dioxide/ min.
Full transcript