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UNIT 22 - Single camera techniques

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Transcript of UNIT 22 - Single camera techniques

UNIT 22 - Single camera techniques
What kind of British film productions use single camera techniques
What kind of genres/sub genres use single camera techniques?
In this task I will be conducting detailed research into single camera productions including technical aspects and also narrative. The purpose of my presentation is to provide comprehensive information explaining features of single camera production.
Narrative Structures Linear and Non Linear
These different narrative structures are used as they are important for defining the genre, it also provides a formula or template in film production. The reason British films use narrative structures is because it provides engagement with the audiences and it ensures it attracts target audience.

Linear - The storyline will follow a straight line and it happens like a usual day so we start the programme day time and finish it at night time. It also has no flashbacks.

Non Linear - This follows a storyline but will often have flashbacks and remember a time before this. It could happen during the night but then back to day time. Although it is back and forth in other terms.

Flashback - This is when the scenes may not be set in the present time but the past and it shows what has previously happened. This could be done to develop character's profile.

Single Stranded - This is when there is only one story running throughout the episode. This structure is used when an important event has happened and the producers want the audience's whole focus to be on this one event.

Multi Stranded - This is when a storyline is shown through more than one perspective using more characters or when there are multiple story lines running throughout one episode.

Closed/open Endings - Closed endings are when the episode has completely finished and the next episode will start with something new rather than carrying on the same storyline.
Open ending narratives are when the episode leaves some questions for the audience unanswered which is used to persuade the audience to come back and watch the next episode.

Single camera production
Single camera productions use a single camera for all of the various shots. Reasons for using single camera is because it is low budget and is normally used for music videos, prime time dramas, commercial advertisements and sitcoms. However, whilst using single camera is more time consuming it gives directions and more control of each shot.


A single camera—either film or video—is employed on the set and shots are often taken out of Multiple camera formats are where as many as five cameras are used simultaneously to catch the same action. The shots that are required are then selected and put together during the editing process. Multi-camera set-up which uses two or more cameras running simultaneously. Different British films use single camera techniques such as action films will use three or more cameras to capture multiple angles, as action scenes take a great deal of time for only seconds to a few minutes of footage. With this method multiple set-ups for the same sequences can be largely avoided.



Low budget, music videos, prime time dramas, commercial advertisements and sitcoms all use single production.






One camera will be used to film all the different shots rather than multi which means lots of cameras are filming different types of shots. Multi camera is a faster method but with single camera production it gives the director more control over each shot.
A production using single camera format is generally used with just one camera and is mostly used in dramas, documentaries and comedies. Each shot and camera angle is taken by the one camera unlike a multi-camera format, where there is a camera for every angle and shot needed in a particular scene, which they are then switched to show these different perspectives. The choice of camera format can depend on what is been filmed such as the genre.

http://hollyarnoldbtectvandfilm.blogspot.co.uk/2009/06/unit-21-single-camera-techniques.html

Comedies use single camera techniques.
Period dramas/costume dramas use single camera techniques.
Crime dramas use single camera techniques as they show the environment around the crime scene. As they use different shots and angles and then put them together to show the audience what is happening.
Janet Fitzsimmons
Narrative theories
Todorov's four act structure
Vladimir Propp's eight character roles
Levi-Strauss' binary oppositions
What kind of genres/sub genres use single camera techniques
Crime drama
Costume
Comedy
Sit-Com
Period drama
Soap opera
Dramadoc
Independent film
Observational documentary
Mockumentary
Todorov's four act structure
Sometimes known as the 3 act structure


Vladimir Propp's eight character roles
The villain - struggles against the hero
The donor - prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical object.
The (magical) helper - helps the hero in the quest.
The princess - seen as the hero's 'prize'
The princess' farther - Propp noted that functionally, the princess and the farther can not be clearly distinguished
The dispatcher - sends the hero off.
The hero - reacts to the donor, usually marries the princess.
False hero - takes credit for the hero's actions or tries to marry the princess.


Levi- Strauss' binary oppositions
The world 'hero' because of our understanding of the world 'villain'
One thing can only exist if there is an opposite which also exists.

Examples -
Good Vs Evil
Young Vs Old
Light Vs Dark.
Narrative theories
Equilibrium
Distruption

by an event
New Equilibrium
often better than the first equilibrium
Uses and Gratifications
This theory states that the audience takes an active role in interpreting media into their own lives.
The theory attempts to fulfill one of the following when chosen a form of media -
IDENTIFY
EDUCATE
SOCIAL INTERACTION
ENTERTAIN
It seems to focus more on the audience rather than the message.
Technical Aspects
CAMERA
Important shots include
Close-up (for focus of the characters' facial expressions)
Mid-shot (from the knees and the upper part of the characters' bodies)
Long shot (to see the whole of the character and some of the background)
Extreme long-shot/establishing shot (see more that one characters, introduce a new setting and for the audience to focus on the location).
Dolly zoom - to create disorientation for the audience to relate to the on-screen character's emotion.
Two shot - to include two characters in the same shot.
Single camera productions use only one camera, each shot and angle is all captured on the same camera. But each shot has to be filmed in order to correspond with other shots so these are arranged during editing, the way these are filmed is non-linear and so can be very hard to match reaction shots with dialogue shots in a conversation scene.
LIGHTING
The standard lighting setup is known as the three-point lighting.
There are three main lights which are involved -
Key light
Fill light
Black light
Lighting can be changed dramatically is one of these main lights are moved.
If the key light is moved backwards, the image will not be as bright and if it is moved to the left or right, it will produce more shadows.
If the angle of the fill light is changed, the shadowing effect will not be created so the fill light is usually aimed to be 15 or 25 degrees.
The back lights main purpose is to separate the object from the background and if this is moved, it can illuminate a small part of the background behind the subject or create unwanted shadows.
SOUND
EDITING

Soundscape - The atmosphere created by the sound in the scene.
Diegetic/non diegetic - The music also heard by the characters on screen or the music that can be heard by the audience but not by the characters, this is usually done to build tension and to set the mood and atmosphere.
Sound effects - added in at the ending stage, not heard by the characters, used to create a dramatic emphasis on a sound.
On and off screen sound - sound which is seen on the screen which the audience are watching or sound which is coming from another room.
In single camera productions the lighting is easier to adjust and get the look you want. With multi camera production you need to ensure the lighting is the same across all the cameras in order to not have odd looking shots.
In single camera productions directors can change the lighting with ease and not have to worry about how the decision affects the other shots. Like most aspects of single camera productions. Gives the director more creative input and also can give the scene the feel the director wants.
Continuity editing - all the scenes are in chronological order and transitions flow smoothly.
Match on action - a scene will change with the action.
Shot reverse shot - Dialogue scenes tend to use this editing transitions as the camera will face towards a character then will cut to face the other characters talking.
Split screen - This is used typically to focus more closely as the imporant moments of the scene.
Montage - This is where a series of short clips are edited together, usually to speed up the cinematic time. -
The disadvantage it more takes are required and repetition of the same scene multiple times for each angle can be stressful and in some cases boring.
Why are these theories used?
Forms the structure
Act as foundations for other companies to follow
Different theories are suitable for different types of productions
SCRIPTING
Structure is arranging your story’s elements into a specific chronological order to elicit the perfect emotional response from the reader.
A good script is key to narrative-based short films and in many ways it's harder to write a short than a feature because you need to condense your story and develop your characters in a very short space of time. All too often films are let down by weak, overwritten or underdeveloped scripts. Before investing money, time and effort into shooting your film, it's a good idea to test your script out on friends and strangers (as friends might fear offending you) and get as much feedback as you can.
Building a scene
The setting is where scene occurs and is an essential part of telling the story of a film. Using a variety of scenes will make the film more interesting.

Both selecting and taking control of your scene is crucial if you want to be able to successfully capture the actors. So selecting a scene where you can control various elements is important.

By telling the story with different scenes, it’s also important to note that many productions follow a simple rule of getting from general to specific in developing a setting.

Mise en scène encompasses the most recognizable attributes of a film also the setting and the actors, it includes costumes and make-up, props, and all the other natural and artificial details that characterize the spaces filmed.
Building a story
The story is the main plan of the story for a film. It is the engine that drives the story forward on course. However, the setting/story also creates both a sense of place and a mood and it may also reflect a character’s emotional state of mind.

Although it can be entirely fabricated within a studio – either as an authentic re-construction of reality or as a whimsical fiction – but it may also be found and filmed on-location.
Case Studies
Advantage of Single Camera techniques
Disadvantages of Single Camera Techniques
Low budget, the process is cheaper
It easier to film in small spaces
Keeps equipment costs down which is handy for low budget productions
The crew costs are smaller due to the fact that there are fewer cameras
Easier to control aesthetics
Scenery can be read by one camera rather than several
Introduction
May cross the 18o degree line
May be filmed on one side of line
Not as much coverage of each scene using single camera set-up
May interfere with the contiguity of the emotional journey of actors
With multi camera more likely to get the best performance
Often means you film a scene out of sequence to save moving camera
You do not get as much coverage of each scene using single camera set up.
Formats
Short films
Feature films
Advantages of multi camera techniques

The multi-camera method used for film making and video production involves two or more cameras running simultaneously from start to finish with no interruptions. This method is used to record many program formats such as talk shows, concerts, soap operas, sports events and many more. Multiple camera productions also tend to capture the best performances from the actors and actresses. This is because, unlike single camera productions, you do not have to repeat each scene. Repeating a scene may make their performances worse as they are being forced to act out the same bit over and over.


The producer - Producers have overall control on every aspect of a film's production. They bring together and approve the whole production team. Their key responsibility is to create an environment where the talents of the cast and crew can flourish. Producers are accountable for the success of the finished film. They steer the film from beginning to completion and beyond.

What is the director's role throughout the production process?
Directors are responsible for creatively translating the film's written script into actual images and sounds on the screen. They are ultimately responsible for a film's artistic and commercial success or failure.

Directors may write the film's script or commission it to be written, or they may be hired after an early draft of the script is complete. They must then develop a vision for the finished film and work out how to achieve it.

During pre-production, directors make crucial decisions, such as selecting the right cast, crew and locations for the film. They then direct rehearsals and the performances of the actors once the film is in production.

They also manage the technical aspects of filming including the camera, sound, lighting, design and special effects departments.

During post production, Directors work closely with Editors through the many technical processes of editing, to reach the final cut or version of the film.

At all stages, Directors are responsible for motivating the team to produce the best possible results. Directors must also always be aware of the constraints of the film's budget and schedule and manage the expectations of the film's financiers.


Single Camera production is an increasingly popular film making style as both technology progresses and more and more filmmakers are picking up on the techniques and advantages to working with a single camera setup. Primarily, independent filmmakers and short film creators both commonly use single camera for their productions for the simplicity. Working on a small low-budget production you may not have the time or the people to set up multiple cameras and lighting rig, this will take much more manpower as it would include a lot more crew on set, give the director and cinematographer a lot more work having to control multiple cameras, the lighting for each camera and the composition of each camera. As opposed to single camera where they get full control over the scene, the cinematography is more versatile because when you only focus on the single shot and composition you don’t have to worry about getting in the way of anything, it is also a lot simpler and effective to set up a lighting rig for one camera angle.

Within single camera dramas they still tend to stick to the majority of film codes and conventions and narrative theories apply.
Multi Camera Technique
The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, multi-camera or simply multi cam is a method of film making and video production. Several cameras either film or professional video cameras are employed on the set and simultaneously record or broadcast a scene. It is often contrasted with single-camera setup, which uses one camera. However, the two outer cameras shoot close-up shots or "crosses" of the two most active characters on the set at any given time, while the central camera or cameras shoot a wider master shot to capture the overall action and establish the geography of the room. In this way, multiple shots are obtained in a single take without having to start and stop the action.

Single Camera production
The prospect of single camera and multi camera formats are simple. Single camera uses one camera and multi camera use 2 or more.

Single camera formats gives a director more control over a shot, however it is more expensive and more time consuming as a shot has to be planed thoroughly giving actors correct timing in which to step into a shot.

Multi camera formats also have there advantages. Such as being useful for live TV as they show different perspectives of actors, showing body language and facial expressions. They are also used in talk shows as they can show the live audience to get a sense of audience participation that can't be achieved by a single camera.

Single camera formats are often used in films joining an array of tracking and panning shots. They are useful in films as they circulate the room and set the scene for the viewing audience.

Multi-camera formats however are used in programs suck as panel shows, talk shows, sketch shows and live sporting events.

Understanding single-camera productions
Five Minutes of Heaven
The roles
Format - Feature film. Widescreen.
Genre - Drama, indie film, thriller crime friction, political drama.
Narrative structure - linear
This particular film has a structure which starts with a beginning, middle and end.
Storyline - The movie begins in 1975 as a recap of how 17-year old Alistair Little (Mark Ryder), a member of the mostly-Protestant Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) came to kill 19-year old Catholic Jim Griffin (Gerard Jordan), a shooting that was witnessed by Jim's younger brother Joe. The story then leaps forward 33 years to present time. After serving 12 years in prison, Alistair is taking part in a One On One program that is going to put him and Joe together at River Finn Center in an attempt to promote forgiveness and reconciliation.
Audience -
The audience is impacted by the storyline which may draw the attention of the target audience. However, this film is aged an 18 as it contains some violence and strong language. With this type of film the storyline has to appeal to its audience as it would not gain as many viewers. Although as this film has a high age rating on it, it may attract many older adults who many not be the planned target audience. This is an advantage because despite this film being a drama film. it focuses on the continuity editing which helps the audience to follow the narrative rather than focus on how the scene is put together. This is a selling point for this film as it is action packed and it is important that the audience can follow the narrative.
During this film there are different camera techniques which are used. For instance as this is a drama film there are close-ups used to enhance the visual facial expressions of each character. It also links back to the film using individual techniques to create meaning for the audience. As there is a lot happening in this movie the audience needs to be able to understand the storyline and having close ups, medium shots and extreme close ups ensures that they do. The linear structure ensures a clear understanding for the audience. It also has a use of master shot used as the genre of this film is drama.
Lighting - As this is a drama film there are several props used to add effect. The actors of this film are wearing basic costumes to fit the idea of each individual character. The actors are mainly males who are dressed casually although this is effective as it all links to the storyline. The mise-en-scene makes this film effective as it reaches out to the target audience.

Sound - Five Minutes of Heaven, a film that tracks the lives of two men from the same town but different sides of the Irish political divide, is unlike any other on this subject. The sounds in Five minutes of heaven is Diegetic sound which can be either on screen or off screen depending on whatever its source is within the frame or outside the frame. There's also sound effects used to create effect.
Editing - The editing for this film uses jump cuts which relates to different angles used whilst filming. Jump cuts show shots over a passing time in the duration of the time. As this film is action packed this engages the audience. It also uses shot reverse shot which is a style of continuity editing which deemphasizes transitions between shots such that the spectator perceives one continuous action that develops linearly, chronologically, and logically.

The single camera production in this film engages the audience and also the narrative provides clear understanding about the storyline for the audience as it is easy to get lost while watching a movie. Single camera technique provides a cheaper budget whilst producing this film.
Building a scene -
Mise en scène encompasses the most recognizable attributes of a film also the setting and the actors, it includes costumes and make-up, props, and all the other natural and artificial details that characterize the spaces filmed. This is what makes a film which is called Mise en scene because these things build the scene for effectiveness. Not forgetting the storyline as without one there would be no film.

Regarding uses and gratifications theory it states that the audience takes an active role in interpreting the media to their own lives. This film provides entertainment for its audience and also a sense of identification.

Friends TV series
Format - TV series
Genre - Sitcom
Narrative structure - Non Linear because Friends follows a storyline of some kind however it will often have flashbacks and remember a time before. It could happen during the night but then back to day time. Although it is back and forth in other terms.
Storyline - Rachel Green flees her wedding day and seeks out childhood friend Monica Geller, a New York City chef. They become roommates, and Rachel joins Monica's social circle of single people in their mid-20s: struggling actor Joey Tribbiani, business professional Chandler Bing, masseuse and musician Phoebe Buffay, and newly divorced paleontologist Ross Geller, Monica's older brother. To support herself Rachel becomes a waitress at Central Perk, the Manhattan coffeehouse where the group often hangs out; when not there, the six are usually at Monica and Rachel's nearby West Village apartment, or Joey and Chandler's across the hall.

Episodes typically depict the friends' comedic romantic adventures and career issues, such as Joey auditioning for roles or Rachel seeking jobs in the fashion industry. The six characters each have many dates and serious relationships, such as Monica with Richard Burke and Ross with Emily Waltham. Ross and Rachel's intermittent relationship is the most often-recurring storyline.

The target audience for this TV series is varied although it could be watched by older children, teenagers and adults. In this case friends is impacted by the storyline which may draw the attention of the audience. With this type of TV series the storyline has to appeal to its audience as it would not gain as many viewers. However, the TV series is humerus which ensures the audience will be interested in watching. As TV series vary their storyline each time, each storyline must ensure that it won't loose its viewers interest in watching the next series.
Camerawork
It is unfamiliar to recognize all of the camerawork in each series as it varies. However, there is a frequent use of close ups which shows clearly the characters facial expression which is essential in TV series as it is humerus and showing what happens in their lives which is what the audience is looking for. There is a frequent use of mid-shot where you can see the characters upper part. Although in different scenes there is extreme long/ establishing shots where you are able to see more than one character which may be introducing a new setting for the audience to focus on the location of that particular scene.
Audience
Lighting
The lighting in all series of Friends are basic as it is a show about showing peoples lives which doesn't include any additional lighting. All of the characters have their own personalities and there costumes are dressed to fit it. This links to the audience as some viewers may remember particular actors because of what they wear. The location changes frequently in the duration of one series. In single camera productions directors can change the lighting with ease and not have to worry about how the decision affects the other shots. Like most aspects of single camera productions.

Sound
Soundscape - The atmosphere created by the sound in the scene.
Diegetic/non diegetic - The music also heard by the characters on screen or the music that can be heard by the audience but not by the characters, this is usually done to build tension and to set the mood and atmosphere.
Sound effects - added in at the ending stage, not heard by the characters, used to create a dramatic emphasis on a sound.
However, with multi-camera production you need to ensure the lighting is the same across all the cameras in order to not have odd looking shots.

Camerawork
Editing

Whilst editing a film/TV series there are different process you can go through. In Friends i have discovered that continuity editing was used as all the scenes are in chronological order and transitions flow smoothly. Shot reverse shot is also used as dialogue scenes tend to use this particular editing transitions as the camera will face towards character and then will cut to face the other characters which are talking. However I have also identified the TV series also uses montage editing where a series of short clips are edited together which is usually to speed up the cinematic time.

The disadvantage of Montage editing includes more takes are required and repetition of the same scene multiple times for each angle can be stressful and in some cases boring.
Scripting
With a TV series there is a script which the actors follow like any production. However, the director ensures that the storyline is going to catch the viewers attention as the TV series wouldn't be successful. Each individual character has their own personality which the audience enjoy and follow.
Mamma Mia
Format - Feature film.
Genre - Musical/romantic comedy
Narrative structure - linear
The film has a structure which starts with a beginning, middle and end.

Storyline - Set in a beach resort in the Mediterranean, Mamma Mia! tells the story of Sophie, a bride-to-be with one wish: to have her absent father walk her down the aisle. After reading passages about three old lovers in her mom's diary, Sophie sends each a wedding invitation in hopes of learning which is her dad.

Audience -
Mamma Mia is a musical which any age group can watch, it is the type of film/musical that you'd watch with your family. Mamma Mia was so successful as a film it was also became a musicale theater.
Camerawork
In Mamma Mia close-up shots have been used for focus of the characters' facial expressions. Also mid-shots have been used in this single camera film which is filming from the knees and the upper part of the characters' bodies. Long shot which is to see the whole of the character and some of the background. As this is a romantic comedy there is a use of extreme long-shot/establishing shots which is to see more that one characters, introduce a new setting and for the audience to focus on the location for effect. This is effective as it indulges the audience and also provides them with a clear understanding as to what is happening.
Mise-en scene
The location of this movie is changed throughout which appeals more to the audience as filming the same thing in the same place can become less appealing and in some cases really boring. Each character has their own costumes, hair and make up down to fit their character. The lighting is effective in the film as it is used correctly.
Sound
In 'Mamma Mia!' there is a use of sound scape which is created by the sound in the scene. Sound scape - The atmosphere created by the sound in the scene. The sound is also diegetic as the music is heard by the characters on screen which is typical as this is a musical.
Diegetic/non diegetic - The music also heard by the characters on screen or the music that can be heard by the audience but not by the characters, this is usually done to build tension and to set the mood and atmosphere. As I have mentioned whilst analyzing other films I have recognized too in all single camera productions directors can change the lighting with ease which can also provide them with more input and not have to worry about how the decision affects the other shots.
Editing
Whilst analysing this film I have recognized that this romantic comedy has used Continuity editing where all the scenes are in chronological order and transitions flow smoothly. There us also use of shot reverse shot in this film.

This single camera production is used to attract it's target audience as this film is entertaining and may link to the target audience's lifestyle. The audience may also be attracted by the relation they have with the characters and themselves.
Skyfall
Format - Feature film.
Genre - Action, Adventure, Thriller.
Narrative structure - linear
This particular film has a structure which starts with a beginning, middle and end.
Storyline -
MI6 agents James Bond (007) and Eve assist on a mission in Turkey in which an MI6 operative has been killed and a Solid State drive stolen. The drive contained details of all NATO agents operating undercover in terrorist organisations. Bond and Eve chase the assailant, the French mercenary Patrice, and attempt to recover the disk. During the chase, Bond is shot in the shoulder, but continues his pursuit, until he is shot from a train by Eve, who misjudged her shot as it was meant to hit Patrice. He is posted as "missing, presumed killed".
Audience
As James Bond is a well known actor this film was already well know because he was in it. Although, as this film is a well known action film which was amazingly successful. This film is rated a 12A as it involves some violent scenes.

Camerawork -

As Skyfall is an action packed film there is a frequent use of different camera shots. Close-ups are used for focused on characters' facial expressions which is effective with this type of film. Also mid-shots in action scenes are used for effect. From long shots to extreme/establishing shots are used in this film.
Mise-en-scene
As this film is full of scenes filmed at different locations, involving characters with different costumes and sets. This is what makes the film as it is fulled with a sense of adventure and thriller. There are large props which are used which are highly professional and expensive.

Sound
In Skyfall there is various uses of non diegetic sound as the music is heard by the characters on screen but not by the characters, this is usually done to build tension and to set the mood and atmosphere. This is effective and links to the idea of the audience receiving a dramatic purpose whilst watching the film.
Editing
Whilst Skyfall was being edited like most films continuity editing was used in the editing process of this film. However as this is a spontaneous film including a variety of techniques, match on action is used for effect which links to the genre and purpose.
Roles
Continuity - Script supervisor
Also known as the continuity person, the script supervisor keeps track of what parts of the script have been filmed and makes notes of any deviations between what was actually filmed and what appeared in the script. They make notes on every shot, and keep track of props, blocking, and other details to ensure continuity from shot to shot and scene to scene. The script supervisor's notes are given to the editor to expedite the editing process. The script supervisor works very closely with the director on set.

Editor – Cuts the film together
A film editor is a mechanic who removes the unneeded and fits pieces of film together to make a finished movie. A collaborator who works with cinematographers and sound editors to bring sight and sound together. an editor typically does an editor’s cut, also known as the rough cut or first cut. By combining all the footage together in a coherent, cohesive manner, the editor creates a working model that can be altered by working in concert with the director and producers to create a final version, or final cut.
Disadvantages of multi camera technique
Issue with lighting as there is a less optimized lighting which needs to provide a compromise for all camera angles.
Lack of flexibility-
It can get complicated when trying to hide equipment from the other cameras, there is also less flexibility in putting the necessary equipment on scene such as microphone booms and lighting rigs.
It takes longer to set up due to the large amount of equipment. Its more expensive than single camera because there are more than 1 camera you would be using. Directors would only be able to use this in studios as it wouldn't be possible to be used outdoor.
What is the difference between multi camera and single camera technique?
The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, multi-camera or simply multicamera is a method of film making and video production. Several cameras either film or professional video cameras are employed on the set and simultaneously record or broadcast a scene. It is often contrasted with single-camera setup, which uses one camera. In single camera productions there's really just one camera doing all the work, so each shot or angle is filmed individually.
Eastenders
Format - TV series
Genre - Soap opera
Narrative structure - Linear
The storyline will follow a straight line and it happens like a usual day so we start the programme day time and finish it at night time. It also has no flashbacks.

Storyline -
A British soap that has been running since 1985, about the lives of people living on Albert Square in the fictitious Walford borough of East London.

The everyday lives of the inhabitants of Albert Square in the East-End of London.
Audience
Camerawork
Lighting
Sound
Eastenders is a popular soap opera which has been around for many of years. The audience for this TV series can vary from young teenagers to adults as it is a regular TV show which many people can watch with family or friends. However, it may not be suitable for younger children as there is some scenes of violence.
In Eastenders there is frequent use of close-up shots which have been used for focus of the characters' facial expressions. Long- shots are also used to to see the actors and the background in this case it may be the square. Also there is a use of extreme long-shot/establishing shots which is to see more that one actor which is essential in a TV series, this techniques could be introducing a new setting and for the audience to focus on the location for effect. This is effective as it indulges the audience and also provides them with a clear understanding as to what is happening as people can get lost whilst watching a soap opera as so much is happening.
Editing
Whilst editing a film/TV series there several processes a director can choose from. Like many TV series Eastenders used continuity editing which was where all the scenes are in chronological order and transitions flow smoothly. In addition, I have also identified the TV series also uses montage editing where a series of short clips are edited together which is usually to speed up the cinematic time.


As this film TV series is full of scenes filmed at different locations, involving different characters with different costumes and sets. The lighting is varied depending on the effect he director has chosen of each scene.
As Eastenders is a well known popular TV series which is on 4 times a week they use the same theme tune so the audience is able to identify.
Scripting
In a TV series the Script-writers explain the process of script creation for a popular soap opera and how consideration of potential impact on target audience is an integral part of their creative process and decision-making.
Conclusion

In conclusion the films that I have analysed use single camera techniques at some point during the filming process, this may be a particular scene of a film. This is used for affect which may influence the success of each production.
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