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Revolutionary War and Creating a Republic

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David Dry

on 1 March 2016

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Transcript of Revolutionary War and Creating a Republic

Revolutionary War
Lexington and Concord
Second Continental Congress


Capture of Fort Ticonderoga
Ethan Allen
Green Mountain Boys



Thomas Paine- Common Sense (January 1776)

It is repugnant to reason, to the universal order of things, to all examples from former ages, to suppose, that this continent can longer remain subject to any external power. The most sanguine in Britain does not think so. The utmost stretch of human wisdom cannot, at this time, compass a plan short of separation, which can promise the continent even a year's security. Reconciliation is now a falacious dream. Nature hath deserted the connexion, and Art cannot supply her place. For, as Milton wisely expresses, “never can true reconcilement grow where wounds of deadly hate have pierced so deep.”......

I am not induced by motives of pride, party, or resentment to espouse the doctrine of separation and independance; I am clearly, positively, and conscientiously persuaded that it is the true interest of this continent to be so; that every thing short of that is mere patchwork, that it can afford no lasting felicity,—that it is leaving the sword to our children, and shrinking back at a time..
Declaration of Independence (July 1776)

When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
The passion for liberty cannot be equally strong in the breasts of those who have been accustomed to deprive their fellow-creatures of theirs......

Abigail Adams- Letter to John Adams, 1776
Reactions to Independence
Native Americans
Slaves and Free Africans
Women
Brooklyn Heights
(Aug. 1776)


Ben Franklin (France)
Loyalists
British Strategy
Horatio Gates
John Burgoyne



What are the British advantages going into the war?

What are the American advantages?





Battle of Monmouth (1778)
Charles Cornwallis
Horatio Gates
Camden





Treaty of Paris (1783)
Financing the War


Demobilization
Newburgh Conspiracy (1783)
Shay’s Rebellion (1787)
The independence of America is now fixed as fate, and the petulant efforts of Britain to break it down are as vain and fruitless as the raging of the waves which beat against her cliffs.… A bankrupt, faithless republic would be a novelty in the political world, and appear among reputable nations like a common prostitute among chaste and respectable matrons. The pride of America revolts from the idea.… If, then, neither our ability nor our inclination to discharge the public debt is justly questionable, let our conduct correspond with this confidence, and let us rescue our credit from its present imputations.

John Jay (1779)



Post-war Crisis
Annapolis Convention(Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government)


State Constitutions
Virginia Declaration of Rights

Virginia Plan
Three Branches

Bill of Rights

Cabinet Figures
John Adams (VP)
Thomas Jefferson
Alexander Hamilton

Federal Courts



Issues
Speculators
Southern States



Jefferson vs. Hamilton
Constitution

First Party System

Federalist Party (Hamilton)

Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson)
Federalist


“Be it therefore enacted by the General Assembly, That no man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship, place, or ministry whatsoever, nor shall be enforced, restrained, molested, or burdened in his body or goods, nor shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief; but that all men shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion, and that the same shall in nowise diminish, enlarge, or affect their civil capacities.”
- Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom (Thomas Jefferson)
Road to the Constitution
Debates on the Constitution
THESE are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is dearness only that gives every thing its value

Thomas Paine (December 23, 1776)
Splits in the Administration
What is the position of your person and what arguments are made for or against the constitution?

Select lines or quotes you can bring up in the debate.
In case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted [to the federal government] by the said compact, the states who are parties thereto, have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them......

That the General Assembly doth particularly protest against the palpable and alarming infractions of the Constitution, in … the “Alien and Sedition Acts”…; the first of which exercises a power no where delegated to the federal government … and the other of which acts, exercises in like manner, a power not delegated by the constitution, but on the contrary, expressly and positively forbidden by one of the amendments


Republics should approach near to each other. In many respects they all have the same interest. But this is more especially the case with the American and French Republics: their governments are similar; they both cherish the same principles and rest on the same basis, the equal and unalienable rights of men.

James Monroe (1794)
This country at present enjoys an unexampled state of prosperity. That war would interrupt it need not be affirmed...... Considering the naval superiority of the enemies of France, we cannot doubt that our commerce would in a very great degree be annihilated by a war.......Nine-tenths of our present revenues are derived from commercial duties.... A substitute cannot be found in other sources of taxation without imposing heavy burdens on the people.

Alexander Hamilton (1794)
Election of 1800

Demographics
Ethnic Identity
Lifestyles
New Territories
Northwest Ordinance

What was the state of affairs in the colonies in 1775?

George III

What conflicting motivations does John Adams face as he waivers between loyalty and independence? Using the textbook and what we learned in class explain how his experience fits into the larger picture. What were some of the other reasons people desired independence and what do you think was the driving force for the common person? You must use one line from the Declaration of Independence or another primary source document to enhance your points.
2-3 Pages
Cite sources

Occupy all major cities
Divide Northern and Southern Colonies
Destroy Washington's Army
Second American Revolution?
Creating a Nation
Patrick Henry
Elbridge Gerry
George Mason
Samuel Adams
John Adams
John Hancock
Benjamin Franklin
John Jay
Federalists Anti-Federalists


1- Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
2- Right to keep and bear arms
3- No quartering of soldiers.
4- Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures.
5- Right to due process of law, freedom from self-incrimination, double jeopardy.
6- Rights of accused persons, e.g., right to a speedy and public trial.
7- Right of trial by jury in civil cases.
8- Freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments.
9- Other rights of the people.
10- Powers reserved to the states.
Bill of Rights
Robert Henry
Colonel David Vance
2. A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
19. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
"The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States"

Article II, Section II- U.S. Constitution
Originalist vs Living Document
“It would reduce the whole instrument to a single phrase, that of instituting a Congress with power to do whatever would be for the good of the United States; and, as they would be the sole judges of the good or evil, it would be also a power to do whatever evil they please.”

- T. Jefferson
[The Congress shall have Power] To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section VIII)
"Necessary and Proper Clause"
“To understand the word [‘necessary’] as the Secretary of State does, would be to depart from its obvious and popular sense, and to give it a restrictive operation, an idea never before entertained. It would be to give it the same force as if the word absolutely or indispensably had been prefixed to it.”

- A. Hamilton
It shall be lawful for the President of the United States at any time during the continuance of this act, to order all such aliens as he shall judge dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States, or shall have reasonable grounds to suspect are concerned in any treasonable or secret machinations against the government thereof, to depart out of the territory of the United States....

If any person shall write, print, utter or publish … any false, scandalous and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States, or either house of the Congress of the United States, or the President of the United States, with intent to defame the said government, or either house of the said Congress, or the said President… then such person, being thereof convicted before any court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars, and by imprisonment not exceeding two years.

Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
Enfranchisement in the New Republic
Damn John Jay! Damn everyone that won't damn John Jay! Damn every one that won't put lights in his window and sit up all night damning John Jay!
America in 1800
Slavery in Western North Carolina

May it please your highness, I John Jay
Have traveled all this mighty way
To inquire if you, good Lord will please
To suffer me while on my knees,
To show all others I surpass,
In love, by kissing of your ___.
Independence
Film Reaction Two
Possible Primary Sources
Declaration of Independence
Massachusetts Circular Letter
Common Sense- Thomas Paine
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania-- John Dickinson
Patrick Henry - Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death
By an anonymous summons, an attempt has been made to convene you together; how inconsistent with the rules of propriety! how unmilitary! and how subversive of all order and discipline....

If Peace takes place, never sheathe your Swords, Says he, until you have obtained full and ample justice; this dreadful alternative, of either deserting our Country in the extremest hour of her distress or turning our Arms against it, (which is the apparent object, unless Congress can be compelled into instant compliance), has something so shocking in it, that humanity revolts at the idea. My God! what can this writer have in view, by recommending such measures? Can he be a friend to the Army? Can he be a friend to this Country? Rather, is he not an insidious Foe?

While I give you these assurances, and pledge myself in the most unequivocal manner, to exert whatever ability I am possessed of, in your favor, let me entreat you, Gentlemen, on your part, not to take any measures, which, viewed in the calm light of reason, will lessen the dignity, and sully the glory you have hitherto maintained

-George Washington (1783)
[The Congress shall have Power] To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes

U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section VIII)

"Commerce Clause"
Jonathan Sewell (British Attorney General of Massachusetts)
Samuel Adams (Leader of Sons of Liberty)
Abigail Adams (Wife of John Adams)
General Washington


Finances


Olive Branch Petition (Summer, 1775)


Independence?
Siege of Boston
Washington
Henry Knox
Independence?
Battle of Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775)




Results
Nathanael Greene

Yorktown (1781)
Federalists (Pro)
Anti-Federalist (Con)
Crossing the Delaware
Trenton
Princeton
Great Compromise
3/5 Compromise
Federalism
Bill of Rights(?)
Washington D.C.
Bank of the United States
Foreign Policy
Washington Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
Ambassador Genet
Jay Treaty
Washington’s Farewell Address
Quasi-war (1798-1800)
U.S. Navy
Naturalization Act
Alien and Sedition Acts
Virginia Resolutions (1799)
"Citizens, by birth or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of American, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from local discrimination....

This government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in the distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to your confidence and your support....

Domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism. The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public liberty....

The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible.....It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.”

George Washington, "Farewell Address" (1796)
12th Amendment
Midnight judges
Marbury vs. Madison
Writ of Mandamus
Judicial Review
Slavery
Cultural Zones
Native Americans
Drover's Road
Compare and Contrast
Federalist Party
Democratic-Republicans
Lets take a step back look at the “winds” which move history? What are the importance forces?

What were the driving features behind the American Revolution? What about creation of the Constitution?

-Are these something which individuals can control, start, or shape?
-If you wanted to change history, could you and how?
Exam #2
Does it say in the Constitution that the Federal Government can establish a bank?
Articles of Confederation
1780s Economic Crisis
What is a problem the new American nation is facing?
Can a woman legally become President of the United States?
French Revolution
Alexander Hamilton
Washington's Administration
Spring 1775- Spring 1776
Foreign Nations
John Adams (Dutch)
Abigail Adams
Molly Pitcher
Tyonajanegen
Iroquois Confederacy
Cherokee
New York and New Jersey Campaigns
Constitutional Convention (1787)
1777 Campaigns
Washington's
1777-78 Campaigns
Capture of Philadelphia
Valley Forge
Baron von Steuben
Southern Campaign
Benedict Arnold
French entry
Battle of Saratoga
What were some of the issues the new United States faced in the 1780s?
Federalists
Federalist Papers
Anti-federalists
Debate Results
8. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Economics and Alexander Hamilton's Plan
Hamilton Tariff of 1789
Excise Taxes
Revolutionary War Debt
vs. Thomas Jefferson
The Presidency of John Adams
XYZ Affair
1800 America
Cherokee
Juan Pardo Expeditions
Joara (1567-68)
Rutherford Expedition(1776)
Early Western North Carolina History
Buncombe County and Asheville
William Davidson
Buncombe County (1792)
Morristown (1793)
Economy of Western North Carolina
James Patton
Drover "stands" and inns
Sarah Gudger
[The mission] “destroyed all of towns, the corn and everything that might be of service to the Indians... the Southern States will suffer no further Damage this season, from the Savages, as it will employ their whole time to provide Sustenance, & Shelter, for their Squaws and children"

October 1776 Report, North Carolina Council of Safety
Thomas Jefferson
Aaron Burr
Full transcript