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# Time Dilation and Its Effects

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## John Andrews

on 5 November 2013

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#### Transcript of Time Dilation and Its Effects

Time Dilation
What is Time Dilation ?
Types of time dilation
Relative Velocity Time Dilation
Gravitational Time Dilation
Example of Relative velocity time dilation
by John Andrews
Based upon Albert Einstein's theory of relativity
gravitational forces distort spacetime
large masses produce gravity forces
Time dilation is an actual difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers either moving relative to each other or differently situated from gravitational masses.
Speed of light is constant for all observers
Real World Example of Time Dilations
accelerations produce g-forces
a
b
c
STATIONARY SPACE STATION
(reference point)
unaffected by any time dilations
not to scale!
TRAVELING SPACESHIP
(velocity =.866*c = 86.6% speed of light)
upon which near speed of light velocity slows time
a
b
c
not to scale!
time elapsed on space station = t_station
if After 10 years of time upon the space station, person a decided to meet up with B and C
Aged 10 years
Aged only 8 years
Aged only 5 years
EXTREMELY DENSE NEUTRON STAR
where gravity slows time
time elapsed on neutron star = 0.8*t_station
time elapsed on board spaceship = 0.5*t_station
STATIONARY SPACE STATION
(reference point)
unaffected by any time dilations
TRAVELING SPACESHIP
(velocity =.866*c = 86.6% speed of light)
upon which near speed of light velocity slows time
EXTREMELY DENSE NEUTRON STAR
where gravity slows time
4350 mph
17,000 MPH
another example
consider 2 spaceships
stationary spaceship
spaceship moving at 50% speed of light
stationary spaceship
at time t = 0, both fire a laser
spaceship moving at 50% speed of light
stationary spaceship
spaceship moving at 50% speed of light
stationary spaceship
spaceship moving at 50% speed of light
Time dilation and Lorentz Factor
Questions?
Conclusion
c = 186,000 miles/s
fastest man made object to date (Helios a & B probes) = 43.63 miles/s
time dilation for this object is only 1.0000000275115 * t
which translates to an aging difference of .856 seconds/year
velocity << C => time dilation negligible
velocity < c => time is slowed for the traveler
velocity = c => the traveler has displacement over zero time
Velocity > C => Time flows in the reverse direction
the next closest star, Proxima Centauri, is over 4.2 light-years away. THat's 2.464*10^13 miles away. That would take helios A around 17,900 years to reach...
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