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The Aztec, Inca and Spanish Colonization

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Katie Hillestad

on 24 February 2015

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Transcript of The Aztec, Inca and Spanish Colonization

The Aztec and Inca
Rise and Fall of Civilizations
Aztec Civilization
The Aztec Civilization
was composed of
tribes of wandering
warriors. Of these tribes,
the Mexica was the most dominant. In fact, it was from this tribe that Mexico got its name!
Symbolism of Eagle
While they were living in the swamps, the Aztec priests received a vision. In this vision, the Aztec god, Huitzilopochtli, told them to look for a place to settle where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus, eating a snake. The Aztecs found this sign on a small reed-covered island in the middle of a shallow lake. There they started building their capital city, Tenochtitlan, in 1325.
The Aztecs
The Aztec Capital
The Aztec Empire's capital, Tenochtitlan,
was located on an
island in the
middle of Lake
Texcoco, in
modern day Mexico City.
The Empire
The Aztec empire began in the 14th century and grew until Spanish invasion in the 16th century.
The Aztecs expanded their empire in the 1400's by conquering other people in the region.
The Aztecs believed it was honorable to die in battle for the war god, Huitzilopochtili.
The Aztecs forced the people they conquered to pay tribute (taxes).
Due to these tibutes, Tenochtitlan became a rich center of trade and learning.

What do you think is going on in this picture?
Aztec Empire
Aztec Accomplishments
Trade/ learning
Medicines (herbalism)
Astronomy (calendar)
Floating Gardens (chinampas)
The Inca
People of the Sun
The Incan empire began in Cuzco, a village that is now a city n Peru.
Cuzco, founded by Manco Capac (the first emperor) was the capital of the Incan empire.
Expanding Empire
The Inca Empire spread along the Western coast of South America.
What mountain range is located within the empire?
What modern day countries are located within the empire?
Machu Picchu
The "lost city" of Machu Picchu demonstrates the detailed stonework that has become a trademark of the Inca civilization.
Incan Achievements
Roads- Incas built 19,000 miles of roads to help govern the vast empire and asist in trade.
Canals- Incas built canals and aqueducts (a pipe or channel designed to carry water from a distant source).
Quipu- Incas did not have a written language, instead, they recorded information using quipus.
A quipu had a main cord with several colored strings attached to it. Each color stood for an item, and knots stood for numbers.
Farming- Incas terraced steep slopes for farming.
Similar to the Aztecs, the Incas believed in many gods.
The sun god, Inti, was very important.
The Incan moral code: ama suwa, ama llulla, ama quella (do not steal, do not lie, do not be lazy).
Incas Today
Descendants of the Inca still live in the region and speak Quechua (the Incan language).
Fall of the Aztec and Inca
Fall of the Aztec
Aztec Empire: 1300-1525
“The city has many squares where markets are held and trading is carried on. There is one square...where there are daily more than 60,000 souls, buying and selling, and where are found all the kinds of merchandise produced in these countries, including food products, jewels of gold and silver, lead, brass, copper, zinc, bones, shells and feathers”
-Hernan Cortes
 The once powerful empires of the Aztec and Inca were quickly overmatched by the superior weaponry of the Spanish.
 Life in the “New World” quickly spread throughout the continent as the Spanish sought to gain the benefits of their new land.
 The Columbian Exchange caused an important change in world politics.
 Hernan Cortes was the leader of the Spanish soldiers in New Spain, which would eventually become Mexico.
 He and his forces defeated Moctezuma and the rest of the Aztec Empire in 1521
Fall of the Inca
 Pizarro was the Spanish conquistador who defeated the Inca empire in 1532
 Pizarro only had 168 soldiers with him, but he defeated Atahualpa, the Inca emperor, and thousands of his people
Incan Empire: 1438-1533
 The Spanish made allies with the enemies of the powerful empires.
 Disease was an invisible ally to the Spanish.
 Smallpox killed millions of indigenous people throughout the New World
How did the Inca lose?
 The defeat of the indigenous empires led to the gradual immigration of Spanish into the New World.
 Spanish women began to settle in the Americas for the first time.
 The development of the Encomienda System
 This was a social and economic system where a conqueror (like Cortes) would be rewarded with land for conquering land
 Indigenous people would be forced to work this land under brutal conditions
 The Catholic church played a key role in working with the government to convert the indigenous population
 The Catholic church forcibly imposed European culture over Native American culture
Columbian Exchange
Colonial Class System
Slavery in Spanish Colonies
By the beginning of the sixteenth century, Spain's experiments in enslaving Indians were failing. To meet the mounting demand for labor in mining and agriculture, the Spanish began to exploit a new labor force: slaves from western Africa.
Spanish Colonialism
Trading in the New World- Old World Market
Students with blue cards are “Old World” consumers—that is, consumers from Europe.
Students with yellow cards are “New World” consumers—that is, consumers from America.
Each student is given two food cards.
During round 1, students will have 5 minutes to trade their cards.
You may only trade with people with the same color card as you.
You do not have to trade if you are happy with your cards.

Round 1
During round 1, students will have 5 minutes to trade their cards.
You may only trade with people with the same color card as you.
You do not have to trade if you are happy with your cards.
In Between Rounds
Round 2
Now, you may trade with students with any color cards.
You have 5 minutes.
You do not have to trade if you are happy with your cards.
After Round 2
Return to your assigned seats.
New World=groups 1-3
Old World=groups 4-6
Turn your cards over.
If you have a blue card with an x on it, you have a disease.
New World students have no immunity. You will grow ill and die.
Old World students have immunity. You aren’t sick at all.

Are you happy with your trading?
Do you think you’re better off now?
If you think you are better off now, why is that the case?
If you think you are worse off now, why do you feel that way?
Could this be changed for the better?
Are you happy with your trading?
Do you think you're better off now?
Full transcript