**GRAPHS**

Graphs

Graphs are used to present the highlights of the statistical data without the burden of reading a table composed with an array of numbers. They provide a visual reference of the important parts of the data to be presented. They are also used in comparing data in a simple and comprehensive way.

Graphs in your Thesis

Graphs are usually found and used in the last chapter of your manuscript or the Results and Discussions. They are used for two reasons: (a) for the brevity of your manuscript and (b) for the convenience of the readers.

For the brevity of the manuscript

The presentation of your study should be as brief as possible so as not to confuse or make it hard for the readers to understand. The use of graphs will help the brevity of your manuscript because it lays out the complex data into a simplified symbolic form.

• For the convenience of the readers

Chances are, if you present the results of your study in a cumbersome manner with a table of numbers, the readers may not perceive the most important details of the results. Presenting the data in a graph enables the readers to instantly understand the results because it is given in a visually apparent image.

Six common types of graphs

The Statistical data is not presented by only one kind graph; there are different graphs for different types of situations depending on the data gathered and how to present this data.

Bar Graph

This graph is presented by using a grid and bars and is used for data at the nominal level of measurement or separated in categories (qualitative).

It presents how the amounts or the number of times a value occurs and these values are arranged in increasingly.

This graph is mostly used when comparing two kinds of data; the comparison is easily seen because the bars represent the increase or the decrease of the value.

Pie Chart or Circle Graph

This graph makes use of a circle or a pie and slicing it into several slices using radial lines to present the contribution of each part or ‘slices’ to the whole. Pie charts are of great use when graphing qualitative data, each trait or quality pertains to each slice of the pie. Each slice then presents the percentage of how much the quality makes up the whole.

However, the pie chart has its limitations, it cannot be used when there are too much categories to be used because the slices will get smaller or skinnier and will be hard to compare to other slices.

Cumulative Frequency Curve

A cumulative frequency graph, also known as an Ogive, is a curve showing the cumulative frequency for a given set of data. The cumulative frequency is plotted on the y-axis against the data which is on the x-axis for un-grouped data. When dealing with grouped data, the Ogive is formed by plotting the cumulative frequency against the upper boundary of the class. An Ogive is used to study the growth rate of data as it shows the accumulation of frequency and hence its growth rate.

Pictograph

A pictorial representation of numerical data or relationships, especially a graph, but having each value represented by a proportional number of pictures.

Frequency Curve

A smooth curve which corresponds to the limiting case of a histogram computed for a frequency distribution of a continuous distribution as the number of data points becomes very large.

Histogram

The histogram looks the same as the bar graph due to the use of a grid and bars, but it is very different from the bar graph. Unlike the bar graph, a histogram is used in the ordinal level of measurement, meaning the bars cannot be arranged increasingly or decreasingly instead, it is arranged according to the order of the ordinal scale. It presents continuous quantitative data arranged in ranges, not categories.

Reporters:

Danna de Guzman

Kenneth B. Eser Jose

IV- Juan Salcedo, Jr.

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