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CMNS 253 - New Media - Chapter 2
Transcript of CMNS 253 - New Media - Chapter 2
The history of new media new media is not an invention; it's a process The roots of the new can be found in the old such as... ...The telegraph first effective means to move a message without moving objects morse code was a precursor to digital technologies what does this mean?
.... . .-.. .-.. --- / -.-. --- -- -- ..- -. .. -.-. .- - .. --- -. /..--- ..... ...-- / .--. . --- .--. .-.. . see http://morsecode.scphillips.com/jtranslator.html canada was the first country to receive a cross-oceanic telegraph message! the telegraph led to some common institutional configurations business models and regulatory schemes and also provided the foundation for future media, such as: input devices storage devices and multiplexing...
(a process where multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium...)(from wikipedia) the telegraph was also able to break photos down into 'bits'. white was represented by a dot, black by a dash... translate this photo:
..---.-..--.-.---..-...-..--./..-..--.-...-.---.- ... ...just kidding! by 'punching' messages onto paper, the telegraph was in many ways a pioneer of modern asynchronous communication not only was the message seperate from space, it was also seperate from time when western union amalgamated many different telegraph companies, it made the value of networks apparent this is known as metcalfe's law as # of connections so too does the value! telegraphy led to media monopolies if your competitors are using it, you don't have much choice there was increasing pressure on governments to regulate to combat high costs, users started using an early form of txtspk As information could be transferred more quickly there was an emphasis on the 'timeliness' of news timeliness
discussion > The telephone telegraphy was inherently gate-kept, in that users needed to know a special language in order to communicate how to democratize? Alexander Graham Bell! with the telegraph, communication was a one way process, mediated by a complicated languge sender Receiver (...---.../..-..--) but the telephone enabled two-way communication, with everyday language Sender/
sender ( "...hey there, margie! it's me, Mike yanagita. remember, from high school?"
"...oh hiya mike, how're you doin?"
"...I saw ya on the Tv there, so I figured i'd give you a shout") the telephone was so popular at first that users were asked to restrict their usage to emergencies sounds a bit similar to at+t asking their iphone users to settle down on their data usage, doesn't it? the mechanical telephone switch lessened the burden on operators and in a way led to network neutrality (no longer would operators act as intermediaries between callers) there were also common carriage laws introduced to ensure that everyone pays according to a common fee structure and there is no discrimination Early developments in telephone had long-ranging consequences for cmns media just like telegraphs, value was dependent on how many connections were being made telephony was consolidated very quickly there was more money to be made for the providers, and the pathways were more reliable for the consumers national governments permitted telephone co's to operate as monopolies in exchange for: a) nationalization b) regulation or, C) both governments began seeing telephony as an essential service, a 'life-line' if you will editors note:
estonia, france, greece, and finland, as well as the united nations, consider internet access to be a fundamental human right. can you see the parallels? Film Film is essentially just a bunch of pictures that are changed so rapidly that our eyes cannot figure out that they are static images film was a product of initiative and invention by thomas edison and the lumiere brothers cgi and digital film are similar, just a lot faster! radio the development of radio is important to new media for three reasons: 1. the importance of hobbyists 2. the identification of new business models 3. regulation of content radio began with amateur hobbyists it was pioneered (in part) by guglielmo marconi (who also created the first radio telegraph!) canadian reginald fessenden was the first person to speak over a radio signal early radio hobbyists used radio as a sort of 'chatroom' as business use of radio grew, amateurs were forced to push the limits of radio and discover higher and higher frequencies suitable for use it was an amateur, frank conrad, who realized the potential of using radio to broadcast music in 1919 however, there are conflicting reports that music was being played over the air in montreal as early as 1918 there are three models of radio use (and other broadcasting for that matter) in 1929, the aird commission (canada) recommended the establishment of publicly funded radio in canada the crbc (canadian radio broadcasting corporation) was established in 1932. It was both a broadcaster and regulatory body Radio, telegraph, and film all paved the way for the next major media development... ...Television Commercial television debuted in Montreal in 1952 (on CBFt) similar to the internet, many thought tv would play a civilizing force in a way, television can be seen as the culmination of the telegraph, telephone, film, and radio early on, there was fear that television would replace film and radio altogether (sound familiar?) People were able to consume completely immersive entertainment from the comfort of their homes thus establishing a personal or private relationship with multimedia Early on, there was an emphasis on educational and children's programming (similar to the early stages of CD-roms) the lesson to be learned from television (and the media forms that preceded it): new media forms do not replace old media; rather, they rearrange relationships and appropriate social, cultural, and institutional configurations two minute essay:
There are fears that online content delivery will disrupt traditional media hierarchies. in what ways is this similar to earlier developments in media? Public, like in the uk Private, as is the case in the united states Or a mix of both, like we have in canada! Keanu Reeves?