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LAND POLLUTION

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Jazmin Marchan

on 18 February 2014

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Transcript of LAND POLLUTION

LAND POLLUTION
Land Pollution
- caused by man and not by nature

- the deposition of solid or liquid waste materials on land or underground in a manner that can contaminate the soil and groundwater, threaten public health, and cause unsightly conditions and nuisances.

- destruction of Earth's land surfaces through misuse of land resources by human activities. Polluted land has deposits of liquid and solid waste such as rubbish, garbage, paper, glass and plastic objects.
Introduction
Pollution
-is the undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of an ecosystem

-is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change or detrimental/harmful effects

-abuse and misuse of the environment

Sources of Solid Waste Pollution:
a. Solid waste from home

- Discarded materials thrown in the garbage in an average household

ex. food wrappers, plastic bags, used tissue papers, scraps,
tin cans, etc...

- Materials discarded throughout the year

ex. broken toys, used school articles, worn out kitcen tools,
broken glasses, etc...
Pollutants
-anything that makes the environment undesirable and unclean refers to as pollutants
Air Pollution
Water Pollution
Land Pollution
b. Waste from factories

-waste products produced by the factories

ex. fermenting products, food processing residues, pieces of glasses, plastic petroleum, fabrics and other industrial residues
c. Waste from agriculture

-Agricultural waste is any substance or object from premises used for agriculture, which the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard. It is waste specifically generated by agricultural activities.

- may be in form of fertilizers, pesticides, animal manures, containers of agricultural products. (old silage wrap)
d. Mining Operations

-in the form of rock particles, dust, sort, sludge, which tend to remove the metal ore from the earth.

-largest waste contributors:
copper, iron, steel, phosphate and lead

-tailings, overburden, waste rock
Tailings, also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue or slickens, are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore.


Overburden -the material that remains after economically valuable components have been extracted from the generally finely milled ore.
Effects of Land Pollution
The toxic materials that pollute the soil can get
into the human body directly by:

-Coming into contact with the skin.
-Being washed into water sources like reservoirs and rivers.
-Eating fruits and vegetables that have been grown in polluted soil.
-Breathing in polluted dust or particles.

Dump sites and landfills also come with serious problems like

-Very bad smell and odour in the town.
-Landfills breed rodents like rats, mice and insects, who in-turn transmit diseases.
-Landfills in towns do not attract tourists to the town. The town will loose revenue.
-Many landfills are always burning and they cause further air pollution.

Contaminated lands and environments can:

-Cause problems in the human respiratory system.
-Cause problems on the skin.
-Cause various kinds of cancers.

Effects on Climate :

Land pollution can affect the general environment of the Earth. Land pollution leads to a depletion in forest covers. This is in turn going to affect the amount of rain. Less rain means lesser vegetation. The effect of all different kinds of pollution will eventually lead to problems like acid rain, the greenhouse effect, and global warming.

Extinction of Species

One of the major causes of concern is the extinction of species. Species are pushed towards endangerment and extinction primarily by two processes.

-Habitat fragmentation is the separating of the natural habitat of an organism, caused primarily by urban sprawl.

- Habitat destruction, on the other hand, is when land clearing adversely affects animals, such that their natural habitat is lost. Both these actions can cause some species to go extinct and others to become invasive.

Recycling

-changing used or discarded materials into another usable form
-decrease the load for incineration and landfills
Sanitary landfill

- solid wastes are spread in layers, compacted and covered with earth daily

- requires to overlay a plastic or clay liner to separate waste from the soil to prevent seepage of liquid into ground water

Biodegradable - is a type of waste which can be broken down, in a reasonable amount of time, into its base compounds by micro-organisms and other living things, regardless of what those compounds may be.

Non-biodegradable - This kind of waste cannot be naturally dissolved into the land.


Composting

- it is the biodegradation of organic matter into humus like product.


Incineration

- a waste treatment technology that involves the burning of organic materials and/or substances.

- converts the waste into ash, flue gases, particulates and heat which can be used to generate electric power


Open dumpsite

-a selected lot where solid waste is brought by the dump trucks for disposal where organic matter is allowed to rot.




Solid waste can be disposed off by means of the following:
People should be educated and made aware about the harmful effects of littering. Discuss with friends and family and talk about it.
Reuse any items that you can. Items like clothing, bottles, wrapping paper and shopping bags can be used over and over again, rather than buying new things.
Solutions:
-Segregate

-Buy biodegradable products

-Store all liquid chemicals and waste in spill-proof containers.
MRF or Material Recovery Facility
2 Types:
-is a specialized plant that receives, separates and prepares recyclable materials for marketing to end-user manufacturers.

- one of the most innovative processing facilities in the world. It processes and recycles residential and commercial trash, yard trimmings, curbside recyclables, food waste and construction and demolition debris.
1. Clean MRF
-A clean MRF accepts recyclable commingled materials that have already been separated at the source from municipal solid waste generated by either residential or commercial sources.

-Material is sorted to specifications, then baled, shredded, crushed, compacted, or otherwise prepared for shipment to market.


2. Dirty MRF
-A dirty MRF accepts a mixed solid waste stream and then proceeds to separate out designated recyclable materials through a combination of manual and mechanical sorting.

-The sorted recyclable materials may undergo further processing required to meet technical specifications established by end-markets while the balance of the mixed waste stream is sent to a disposal facility such as a landfill.

Let's help save Mother Earth!
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