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Use of Propaganda in WWI

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Katie Salvador

on 21 November 2016

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Transcript of Use of Propaganda in WWI

Use of Propaganda in WWI
A Closer Look at Each Country
Propaganda the use of, usually bid or misleading, information to promote and publicize a political cause or point of view. During the Great War, it was largely used to encourage men to recruit into the army.
What is Propaganda?
How was it shown?
It was very common to see propaganda posters, postcards, newspaper reports, stamps and even in songs with messages about the war. The point of all the propaganda was to justify the war, build up dislike toward the enemy, encourage people to enlist and support the war by donation and to strengthen patriotism.

In 1914, when Canada joined the war alongside Britain, Borden had not yet introduced the Military Service Act, so they relied on volunteers. They used propaganda to encourage people to enlist and purchase victory bonds.
Canada
Bias
In order to promote something that had taken so many lives and something that had been so expensive, they had to skew the information. Often, they would lie about the number of deaths; making it less on their side and more on the enemies side. They would also only announce the benefits of the war and would never touch on the negative effects.
When the war started many songs were released with patriotism, heroism and glorifying the army as themes. Since music was a large part of peoples lives back home and at the home fronts, this was a very useful propaganda technique. Songs such as "Good Luck to the Boys of the Allies" and "Canadian Forever" were popular Canadian songs. Singers would be hired to sing at recruitment rallies and the men who didn't enlist after the rally were publicly humiliated by being given a white chick feather as they left. This sent a message that anyone who didn't enlist are cowards and should feel guilty.
Canadian Music
Although they were the last nation to join the war in 1917, the USA was among the countries that produced the most propaganda. In this infamous poster, Uncle Sam (the personification of the United States) is pointing at the onlooker almost forcibly telling them to join the army. In other posters, they used heroism as motivators for men to join. They showed women beckoning men to come and join the fight. They also heavily promoted purchasing liberty bonds which are similar to victory bonds where they financed the war.
USA
Unlike the Allies, Germany didn't focus too much on recruitment propaganda. They had successfully portrayed their stance as defensive and that coupled with the fact that they initially had a large military, it wasn't particularly necessary to get a lot of new recruits. They reported on German victories and rarely touched on their losses. Their radios were dominated with pro-German news which helped boost the morale of the populace. For the men on the front, mobile cinemas were sent to them to to help their spirits.
Germany
All the propaganda produced in Britain was controlled by a government organized office called the M17. Britain's military was small in comparison to Germany's. At first, everyone was volunteering but as the casualties kept building up, there were less and less people willing to enlist. Propaganda was there to help those numbers increase. It targeted men who didn't enlist and made them feel guilty. It largely reported on the atrocities the Germans had committed and they held nothing back. They released reports of the Germans hurting women and children in explicit detail. This was done so that people would see the Germans as monsters instead of man and would want to defend their country. The most controversial of these reports was the Bryce Report which listed almost every atrocity committed by the Germans.
Britain
After 2 years in the war, Russia had run out of money to finance the war effort. They needed people to buy war bonds at a standardized rate of 5 1/2% return monthly. They released posters with slogans like "Everything for Victory" and "Everything for the War". They wanted people to donate their savings ("Everything"). Much of the propaganda was about these loans and recruitment posters were never really used. There were some posters of Russia defeating the enemies but not in abundance.
Russia
A popular slogan seen often was “Jeder Schuss ein Russ. Jeder Stoß ein Franzos. Jeder Tritt ein Brit” (“Every shot: a Russian. Every dig: a Frenchmen. Every kick: a Brit”)
Reflection
The different types of propaganda were planned to reach a certain demographic or to convey a specific message. They had clear intentions in mind whether that be to get more people to enlist or to make the enemy seem like monsters,
During the war, the Allies were going through an intense food shortage so to combat this, the States sent long lasting food overseas to feed them. They mainly sent wheat. The food administrator, Herbert Hoover, introduced voluntary days such as Meatless Mondays and Wheatless Wednesdays in order to not ration food and lower consumption at the same time. Posters like the one on the left were spread throughout the country to encourage people to participate in the food conservation program.
Food Campaign
Sources
http://www.firstworldwar.com/posters/canada.htm
http://digital.library.mcgill.ca/warposters/search/searchdetail.php?ID=8677&version=e
http://parlorsongs.com/issues/2004-4/thismonth/feature.php
http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/hasm_b0757/
https://www.google.ca/search?q=german+propaganda+ww1&rlz=1C5CHFA_enCA711CA714&espv=2&tbm=isch&imgil=XEWSGNmVPtUoHM%253A%253BQJ74vCgo11tGUM%253Bhttp%25253A%25252F%25252Fwww.ww1propaganda.com%25252Fworld-war-1-posters%25252Fgerman-ww1-propaganda-posters&source=iu&pf=m&fir=XEWSGNmVPtUoHM%253A%252CQJ74vCgo11tGUM%252C_&usg=__0WaRsaPYeBGfE319dxTaEbWTBug%3D&biw=1071&bih=617&ved=0ahUKEwiF-__gqLjQAhUL6mMKHRj4Bm8QyjcINQ&ei=-RoyWMWaOIvUjwOY8Jv4Bg#imgrc=tHE6GMHWC4ZFOM%3A
http://www.ww1propaganda.com/world-war-1-posters/ww1-army-posters
http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/warloans_russia.html#
http://www.ww1propaganda.com/world-war-1-posters/british-ww1-propaganda-posters
https://worldwaripropaganda.wordpress.com/
http://www.obsev.com/food/american-food-conservation-posters-wwi.html
https://quadri.wordpress.com/2008/04/25/the-battle-for-the-mind-german-and-british-propaganda-in-the-first-world-war/

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