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The History of the Periodic Table

A history of how our understanding of chemical properties evolved into the periodic table.

Clay Shupak

on 25 September 2012

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Transcript of The History of the Periodic Table

The origins of the periodic table coincide with the origins of chemistry. Origins of the Periodic Table Perhaps the first use of chemistry was the harnessing of fire by ancient peoples. The next major advance in chemistry was
the formulation of Atonism
an important prerequisite
by Democritus.
(440 B.C.) For the next 1900 years civilizations
experimented with metalurgy and
alchemy. Robert Boyl publishes Boyle's Law finally distinguishing modern chemistry from alchemy.
(1661) Demtri Mendeleev publishes the first periodic table. (1869) Contributions to the Perioic Table The "Father of Nuclear Physics" Ernest Rutherford Devises the
Rutherford Model of the
atom... postulates that protons
have a positive charge... and depicts protons
in the nucleus. (1871 - 1937) Joseph John Thompson (1856- 1940) Discovers... Electrons Isotopes and
the mass spectrometer Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) Discovers... radioactivity Henry Moseley
who formed

the concept


Atomic Number (1887- 1915) Robert Millikan A physicist... A physicist... Who measured the charge
of an electron and formulated the
Photoelectic Effect (1868-1953) John Dalton Pioneered... Atomic
Theory (1776-1844) Edwin Schrödinger Louis de Broglie and Introdced
wave/particle duality Used duality
to formulate his
wave equation John Newlands Worked with
the periodic table
on the periodization
of elements (1837-1898) Niels Bohr Formulated the "Planetary Model" of Atoms (1885-1962) Formation of the Periodic Table Mendeleev's periodic table is based upon a century of chemical discovery. The table is meant to visually dipict the peridoic law that states certain properties reapeat when elements are arranged by their atomic number. In the early years, Mendeleev's periodic table depicted only 63 elements as opposed to our modern count of 109. On Mendeleev's original table, columns represented periods and rows represented groups (reciprocal to the current model.) Early Elements Modern Elements were used by humans for hundres of years before they were classifed by scientists. Here are some early references to elements: Copper is utilized in Antolia in 9000 BC. Gold appears in Egyptian artifacts 5500 BC. Phosphorus is prepared from urine by Henning Brand becoming the first chemically discovered element. (1669) Oxygen is discovered by Carl Scheele by heating murcuric oxide and nitrates. (1771) Nitrogen is discovered by Daniel Rutherford by demonstrating the gas does not support combustion and thus has unique properties. (1772) Design The purpose of the periodic table is to organize elements in a way that enables us to understand them. Periods Groups
The design of the periodic table has allowed scientists to discover "missing" elements. The current model of the periodic table (pictured above) is a corraboration of modern discoveries. New elements are still being discovered.The most recent additions were flurovium and livermorium. Periods are arranged by ascending atomic mass. They show which shell an electron is in. Groups organize elements with similar chemical properties. Chemical Symbol Element Name Atomic Mass Atomic Number The modern periodic table resembles Mendeleev's with import contributions relating to chemical theory by modern scientists. Works Cited *http://www.webelements.com/




* http://wikipedia.org
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