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"Black Tuesday" & "Okies"
Transcript of "Black Tuesday" & "Okies"
What is Black Tuesday?
October 29, 1929, otherwise known as Black Tuesday, was the dreaded day that America's stock market crashed, officially signaling the start of the infamous Great Depression. It left one-fourth of the work force jobless.
What is an "Okie?"
The term "Okie" was mainly used to describe a person originating from the state of Oklahoma when they traveled to a different area of the United States. These were usually farmers looking for new land in different regions.
The Blackest Tuesday in October
Black Tuesday was a major turning point for the U.S economy. It was considered the beginning of the infamous Great Depression and was the day America's stock market crashed and burned to the ground. It took place over four days known as Black Thursday, Friday, Monday, and Tuesday, though the greatest amount of damage was done on Monday and Tuesday. Over the course of these four devastating days, stocks lost 12% of their value, a little over $26 billion. Over 30 million stocks were traded, and investors and borrowers alike were suffering from this. Many businesses were closed, and borrowers had to sell almost everything to pay back debts, though some couldn't pay the debts.
During the 1930s, hundreds of thousands of farmers (about 60%) were leaving the plains of Oklahoma and heading west, due to the drought caused by what was known as the "dust bowl." The people that traveled were usually called "Okies" because of the area they migrated from. Oklahoma had a net loss of about 440,000 people throughout this time. Most families that moved ended up in places like California, Oregon, and Washington. California received a total of over 250,000 Okies around this time period. The problem with this was there were not enough jobs for the mass amount of people coming to these states (especially California). Another big problem for these farmers was that they weren't able to cultivate the same kind of crops as they could in Oklahoma.
So how are Black Tuesday and Okies relevant to Of Mice and Men? During the time the book was written in, as well as where it took place, many people were out of a job and desperate for work; Which leads us to Lennie and George going job-hunting to save money for a farm of their own. Okies were farmers who moved to California because of drought; George and Lennie are travelers in California looking for money to start their own farm, much like the Okies in the 1930s.
AHI: United States Twenty-First Century Okies. n.d. Photograph. Affordable Housing Institute : US. David A. Smith, 21 June 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. <http://affordablehousinginstitute.org/blogs/us/2010/06/twenty-first-century-okies.html>.
"Black Tuesday." InvestingAnswers. Investinganswers.com, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. <http://www.investinganswers.com/financial-dictionary/stock-market/black-tuesday-917>.
Black Tuesday- Life Science Foundation. 2009. Photograph. Life Science Foundation. N.p., Jan. 2009. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. <http://www.lifesciencesfoundation.org/staff.html>.
Black Tuesday October 29th 1929. N.d. Photograph. Black Tuesday October 29th 1929 Revisited? Richard Lancaster, 29 Oct. 2002. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.gold-eagle.com/article/black-tuesday-october-29th-1929-revisited>.
Work Cited cont.
Escape the Okie Zone: August 2010. N.d. Photograph. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. <Google Images>.
Ganzel, Bill. "Okies." Farming In The 1930s. Livinghistoryfarm.org, 2003. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. <http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/water_06.html>.
Hill, Alton. "Black Tuesday 1929." Tradingsim Day Trading Blog. Tradingsim.com, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. <http://tradingsim.com/blog/black-tuesday/>.
History of NYSE - Black Tuesday. 1929. Photograph. Timeline Beta. N.p. Web. 30 Oct. 2013. <http://www.xtimeline.com/evt/view.aspx?id=929632>.
Mullins, William H. "Okie Migrations." Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture. Okstate.edu, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. <http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/O/OK008.html>.
N.p. United States. Congress. Depression & WWII.
Washington D.C.: James H. Billington, N.d. Web.
24 October 2013 <http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/wwii/jb_wwii_subj.html>.
Oct 24, 1929: Wall St Crash. 1929. Photograph. The Telegraph. Jamie Dunkley and Amy Wilson, 24 Oct. 2008. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/3253999/Oct-24-1929-Wall-St-crash.html>.
Scribd. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. <http://www.scribd.com/doc/54651342/Intro-of-Mice-and-Men-Context>.
Wall Street Crash of 1929. 1930. Photograph. Wall Street Crash of 1929. 24 Oct. 2013. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wall_Street_Crash_of_1929>.