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AP World - Period 4 -1450-1750 - Rise of West & Hemispheres United & Russia

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Mark Fiorill

on 7 September 2017

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Transcript of AP World - Period 4 -1450-1750 - Rise of West & Hemispheres United & Russia

Rise of the "West"
Hemispheres United

AP World - Period 4
Why does balance of power begin to shift?
PART I. Changes
like what?
what were some of these important changes?
i mean come on!
A. Renaissance
B. Crusades
-cultural diffusion
C. Black Death
disillusionment with Church
Key Characteristics - Humanism - individual capabilities
Art imitates nature; realism
Challenged Church omniscience
Individualism = new ideas on gov & econ
D. Reformation
The Church is like sooooo unpopular...
Martin Luther
justification by faith
95 Theses
Henry VIII
Anglican Church
E. Catholic Counter Reformation
1. Council of Trent
-acknowledged abuses; reforms
2. New Religious Orders
- Jesuits
skepticism toward authority, tradition
F. Scientific Revolution
reliance authority, tradition - declines
Copernicus - heliocentric
G. Enlightenment
sci approach to human affairs
Adam Smith (Scottish economist)
John Locke (English philosopher)
Central Theme of the Enlightenment - idea of progress
-society not fixed or guided by tradition
Rationalism- reason/logic center of knowledge
Rene Descartes
-cogito ergo sum
Mary Wollstonecraft
monarch > subjects = wrong
man > woman = wrong (reason)
Thomas Hobbes
tabula rasa
natural rights
govt = protect rights
get new one!
"nasty, brutish, violent"
absolute monarch needed
"If men are not naturally in a state of war, why do they always carry arms and why do they have keys to lock their doors?"
both = social contract
agree to be governed
Hemispheres United
A. Travel
For thousands of years Europeans do not venture very far, why now?
1. Exotic East (presented by Marco Polo)
2. Conquests by Ottoman Turks
3. Spices
4. New technology
- Bigger guns mounted on ships
5. Metals (GOLD!!!)
6. Religion (GOD!!!)
7. Grandeur, thrill of exploring (GLORY!!!)
The Great Dying
demographic collapse of Native American societies
no immunity to many disease
A native Nahuatl: "A great many dies from this plague, and many others dies of hunger. They could not get up to search for food, and everyone else was too sick to care for them, so they starved to death in their beds"
To the Governor of Plymouth colony in North America, this dying represented the "good hand of God at work, sweeping away multitudes of the natives that He might make room for us"
D. Columbian Exchange
network of communication, migration, trade
spread of disease
transfer of plants and animals
unequal distribution of benefits
E. What Were These New Colonies Like?
Brazil, Caribbean
80% Afr slaves - Brazil
plantation system = ag mass production
settling and living
British = local self-government
Spanish colonies = Catholicism
B. Who Was First?
The Spanish and the Portuguese
encomienda - right by crown to use Native population as laborers

weakens Muslim Empires
However, important land-based powers are still around
ex. Russia, Ming & Qing China, Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals
Mongols ousted 1480
Princes independent of Mongols
Ivan III - tsar
feudalism, serfdom
cossocks as settlers
Ivan IV "the Terrible"
gives boyar land to oprichniki
oprichniki - secret police
oath - I swear to be true to the Lord, Grand Prince, and his realm, to the young Grand Princes, and to the Grand Princess, and not to maintain silence about any evil that I may know or have heard or may hear which is being contemplated against the Tsar, his realms, the young princes or the Tsaritsa. I swear also not to eat or drink with the zemschina, and not to have anything in common with them. On this I kiss the cross
Romanov, boyar family, take charge
rule until 20th century
Ivans = expansion, centralization of government
Peter the Great
1. Window on the West - St. Petersburg
2. military reform - recruit peasants, western tech
3. social reform - dress Euro, shave; women secluded
4. bureaucratic reform - Table of Ranks
5. economic reform - encouraged industry
Slavic, traditional ways vs. Western ways
Catherine the Great
enlightened absolutism
continues expansion
1. Emergence of new racial/ethnic groups
Indigenous - native
Peninsulares - born in Europe
Criollo - born in Americas to Peninsulares
Mestizo - people of mixed heritage/descent
2. Religions become mixed
syncretism - mixing of belief systems
Protestants - little/no converting
I. Land-based powers
protect from outsiders
built armies, bureaucracies, cultures, infrastructure
govts controlled land
Now for something completely different:
Caravel - light, fast sailing ship; Portuguese
gov'ts control sea routes
developed tech
wealth from trade/land claim
H. Rise of Sea-based powers
Fr, Dutch, Port, Span, Br
escalation in violence, guns
political unrest
depopulation, especially males
Impact on Africa
African Diaspora - spread of Africans all over world, especially Americas
disease, bad food, starvation, execution, torture common
pack ship, maximize profit
4-10 weeks
Middle Passage
target weaker Afr states
labor for colonies
Then Dutch, English, French
First 150 years - Portuguese, Spanish
largest forced migration (10 mil)
G. Atlantic Slave Trade
large farms = plantations
few staple products (cash crops)
chattel slavery - people = property, bought/sold
secularism (non-religious)
Yea, but still... so what?
Some people & advances:
Renaissance, Crusades, Black Death
and then...
Late Middle Ages = trade, tech, education
People challenge this:
some people & advances:
C. Results of Contact with Native Americans
F. Specific Types of Colonies
PART III. Major Land-Based Powers
A. Russia
social contract not divine right
ruler knew better than people
improve lives of subjects
FSOPQ - List as many differences as you can between the two paintings above.
FSOPQ - List anything that you remember about the Reformation from last year or your own knowledge.
FSOPQ - For Wollstonecraft, what is the "association of ideas" and how has it led to subjugation of women?
FSOPQ - In what ways were Locke and Hobbes similar? In what ways were they different?
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