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Muslim Spain's Golden Age
Transcript of Muslim Spain's Golden Age
By: Lavanya, Rumesa, Honey, Laiba
What is The Golden Age of Muslim Spain?
Islamic Conquest and the Crusades
In Baghdad they established the “House of Wisdom“, where scholars, both Muslim and non-Muslim (Christians and Jews), sought to gather and translate the world’s knowledge into Arabic.
The tradition of the pilgrimage to Makkah became a center for exchanging ideas and goods. The influence held by Muslim merchants over African-Arabian and Arabian-Asian trade routes was tremendous. As a result, Islamic civilization grew and expanded on the basis of its merchant economy, in contrast to their Christian, Indian and Chinese peers who built societies from an agricultural landholding nobility.
Muslim Spain's Golden Age
During this period, artists, engineers, scholars, poets, philosophers, geographers and traders in the Islamic world contributed to agriculture, the arts, economics, industry, law,literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, sociology, and technology, both by preserving earlier traditions and by adding inventions and innovations of their own.
The Islamic Golden Age is traditionally dated from the mid-7th century to the mid-13th century at which Muslim rulers established one of the largest empires in history.
Religious freedom, though society was still controlled under Islamic values, helped create cross-cultural networks by attracting Muslim, Christian and Jewish intellectuals and thereby helped spawn the greatest period of philosophical creativity in the Middle Ages from the 8th to 13th centuries.
Muslim scholars expanded the religious ethic of the Qur'an and Hadith in immense detail.
The quran teaches high morals; some of which are: Worship only God(Allah). Be kind, honourable and humble to one's parents. Do not kill unjustly. Care for orphaned children. Keep one's promises. Be honest and fair in one's interactions. Do not be arrogant in one's claims or beliefs.
Many medieval Muslim thinkers pursued humanistic, rational and scientific discourses in their search for knowledge, meaning and values. A wide range of Islamic writings on love, poetry, history and philosophical theology show that medieval Islamic thought was open to the humanistic ideas of individualism, occasional secularism, skepticism and liberalism.
The golden age of Islamic art lasted from 750 to the 16th century, when ceramics, glass, metalwork, textiles, illuminated manuscripts, carpets, and woodwork flourished. Islamic luster-painted ceramics were imitated by Italian potters during the Renaissance.
The Islamic world made important advances in science, such as in algebra, chemistry, geology, spherical trigonometry, etc. which were later also transmitted to the West.
Some of the greatest muslim scholars namely are:
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)
Ibn Sina (Avicenna)
Ibn Rushd (Averroes)
The most well known work of fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), which was a compilation of many earlier folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad and Ali Baba.
A famous example of Arabic poetry and Persian poetry on romance is Layla and Majnun, dating back to the 7th century.
During the golden age, their trade networks extended from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Indian Ocean and China Sea in the east.
During this time Muslims also developed a scientific approach to agriculture based on three major elements; sophisticated systems of crop rotation, highly developed irrigation techniques, and the introduction of a large variety of crops.
Arab philosophers and Persian philosophers preserved the works of Aristotle.They also absorbed ideas from China, and India, adding to them to their tremendous knowledge from their own studies.
From Spain the Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Hebrew, Latin, and Ladino, contributing to the development of modern European philosophy.
Philosophy persisted for much longer in the Eastern countries, in particular Persia and India where several schools of philosophy continued to flourish.
The purpose of the Crusades was not only to spread Christianity but also to take back the Holy Land from the muslims. Catholics thought that the muslims were desecrating the Holy Land (where Jesus taught) and decided to go and take it back.
Misconceptions about the Crusades are all too common. The Crusades are generally portrayed as a series of holy wars against Islam led by power-mad popes and fought by religious fanatics. They are supposed to have been the epitome of self-righteousness and intolerance, a black stain on the history of the Catholic Church in particular and Western civilization in general.
Several hundred thousand Roman Catholic Christians became crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the church.
Say, [O Muhammad], "Travel through the land and observe how He began creation."
~Chapter (29) Sūrat al-Ankabūt