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Transcript of Woodrow Wilson
for 14 Points
"Peace without victory"
Opposed abroad & in U.S.
Henry Cabot Lodge (revisionists)
Worried about weakening U.S. independence
Nothing to do with treaty
9,981 miles & 29 cities
Wilson has a stroke in Colorado (1919)
1/2 paralyzed & secluded for the rest of his presidency (directions through his wife)
Senate Republicans prevents president from using force without Congressional approve
Wilson had allies vote against the treaty
U.S. never joins League of Nations (No Teeth)
Born Thomas Woodrow Wilson on December 28th, 1856 in Staunton, Virginia
Spent most of this childhood in the south
Family influence on his life (Father -Presbyterian Minister)
Davidson College & College of New Jersey (Princeton)
Law Degree from University of Virginia
Ph.D. in Political Science & History from John Hopkins
Thesis: "Congressional Government"
Professor at Bryn Mawr, Wesleyan, & Princeton
Election of 1916
By Matthew Geras
Only president to be buried to be buried in a church & only president to be buried in Washington, D.C.
Washington National Cathedral
Only president with a Ph.D.
Next to last president to write his own speeches
First President to give his State of the Union Address on the house floor of the United States Capital Building
First sitting President to travel to Europe while in office
$12.5 million program (25 x annual budget)
Created majors/ uniformed curriculum
Added Honors Program
Academic standards increased so greatly that enrollment sharply dropped in 1907
Hired Assistant Professors (TA)
Divided the school into 4 colleges
School of Public & International Affairs
Woodrow Wilson Award
highest honor an alumni can receive in recognition of distinguished public service
Asked to run to clean up Democratic Party
Declared independence from party bosses after winning nomination
Mandated direct party primaries for all elected officials in the state
Required all candidates to file campaign financial statements, limited campaign expenditures, & outlawed corporate contributions to political campaigns
Wilson & Roosevelt compete as reformers
Limits on campaign contributions by corporations, tariff reductions, new & stronger antitrust laws, banking & currency reform, a federal income tax, direct election of senators, a single term presidency, & the independence of the Philippines
VP: Thomas Marshall
Pro State's rights
Segregation in the White House
Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act
Federal Reserve Act
Federal Income tax (16th Amendment)
Direct Election of Senators (17th Amendment)
Federal Trade Commission
Clayton Antitrust Act
1st use of "I Want You"
June 28: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria is assassinated
Start of WWI - President Wilson declares U. S. neutrality
Sinking of the Lusitania - killing 1,198 passengers and crew members including 128 Americans
Wilson orders American troops to pursue Mexican guerrillas who raid U.S. territory
Democrats lose majority in House of Representatives
Wilson appoints a committee of distinguished experts later known as The Inquiry to develop ideas for a future of world peace based on democracy
Sedation & Espionage Act
Democrats lose control of the Senate
Woman's Suffrage (19th Amendment)
Wilson receives Nobel Piece Prize
Wilson rides with President-elect Warren G. Harding to the Capitol & signs the last acts of the 66th Congress
“Peace Without Victory”, but Germany institutes unrestricted submarine warfare in Atlantic, Wilson signs a proclamation of war against Germany
January 8th: 14 Points Speech
November 11th: WW1 ends when Germany signs armistice with Allies
Disagreements over how Central Powers should be treated
Treaty of Versailles (without most of Wilson's 14 points)
League of Nations meets for 1st time (no United States)
1st Inaugural Address
"Sanitary laws, pure food laws, and laws determining conditions of labor which individuals are powerless to determine for themselves are intimate parts of the very business of justice and legal efficiency."
"We shall restore, not destroy. We shall deal with our economic system as it is and as it may be modified, not as it might be if we had a clean sheet of paper to write upon; and step by step we shall make it what it should be"
Roosevelt cannot win Republican nomination (favors entering WW1)
Supreme Court Associate Justice Charles Evans Hughes of New York
"He kept us out of war"
Wilson does not like this slogan
Hughes labeled as "War Candidate"
Roosevelt's help costly(?)
2nd Inaugural Address
"we have centered counsel and action with such unusual concentration and success upon the great problems of domestic legislation to which we addressed ourselves four years ago, other matters have more and more forced themselves upon our attention-- matters lying outside our own life as a nation and over which we had no control, but which, despite our wish to keep free of them, have drawn us more and more irresistibly into their own current and influence"
Treaty of Versailles
Germany deprived of 13.5% of 1914 territories
German army limited to 100,000 men & banned the use of heavy artillery, gas, tanks, aircraft
Germany responded with a list of complaints which were ignored
Great departure from Wilson's 14 points
Too harsh on Germany
"The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when those rights have been made as secure as the faith and the freedom of nations can make them."
Wilson Asking Congress to Declare War
January 8th, 1918
1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at")
2. Free navigation of all seas
3. An end to all economic barriers between countries
4. Countries to reduce weapons numbers
5. All decisions regarding colonies should be impartial
6. German Army is removed from Russia; Russia to set-up its own political system
7. Belgium to be independent
8. France to be fully liberated & allowed to to recover Alsace-Lorraine
9. All Italians can live in Italy; borders are to "along clearly recognizable lines of nationality"
10. Self-determination for everyone in Austria- Hungary
11. Self-determination & independence allowed to all Baltic states
12. Turks governed by Turkish government; Non-Turks in old Turkish government govern themselves
13. Independent Poland established with access to the sea
14. League of Nations to guarantee political & territorial independence of all states
"I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it"
Appealing to Public
League of Nations (Considered Greatest Failure)