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Transcript of Chiropractic Neurology
acnb.org the nervous system FUNCTION:
receive, integrate &
process information cortical neurons activation is dependent upon the frequency of firing of its pre-synaptic
1. other areas of ipsilateral cerebral cortex
2. contralateral cerebral cortex
3. thalamus via projection fibers
the same is true for the entire afferent pathway... using specifically targeted stimuli to cause positive changes in the central nervous system that then affect the person’s physiology and behavior Central Integrative State “Total integrated input received by the neuron at any given moment and the probability that the neuron will produce an action potential based on the state of polarization and the firing requirements of the neuron to produce an action potential at one or more of its axons” What does that mean???
The summation of all excitatory and inhibitory
potentials in a neuron pool
Includes all cortical and segmental integration
The resting state of the nervous system
Physiological balance used to estimate status of... The probability that a given stimulus will result in the activation of the neuron
The state of proto oncogene activation and protein production
Rate and duration the system will respond to an appropriate stimulus modulated by... adequate gas exchange
adequate nutritional supply
adequate and appropriate stimulation when these are not supplied, manufacture
of protein is down-regulated, resulting in
TRANSNEURAL DEGENERATION receptor activation is key! it accounts for 30-40% of our neural connections transneural degeneration causes loss of receptor activation (subluxation)
etc. results Decreased protein production
Decreased ATP stores
Decreased activation of Na/K pumps
Lower threshold for action potential Lesions of the Nervous System pathological physiological actual physical problem (SOL, etc)...
can cause decreased activation of receptors and transneural degeneration
clinically... Romberg's test = patient falls over functional problem
can also cause decreased activation of receptors and transneural degeneration example
decrease in primary afferentation (subluxation) causes decreased afferentation to the ipsilateral cerebellum, contralateral thalamus and cortex
this decreased afferentation may lead to degeneration of neuronal systems downstream from the decreased stimulus
in other words, an injury affecting the cerebellum also affects the activity of the contralateral thalamus and cortex
this is called DIASCHISIS results of diaschisis 10% of cortical output is to voluntary muscle contraction
90% of cortical output is to vital centers in the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) of the brainstem PMRF
allows excitation of antigravity muscles
inhibits certain muscles, allowing for bipedalism
inhibits pain at dorsal horn lack of afferentation from receptors in the periphery abberrant PMRF function ipsilaterally decreased cortical output to the PMRF lack of input all the way back up to the cortex assessment of brain function blind spots anatomical physiological caused by optic disc which lacks receptors
brain automatically fills in missing field with info from other eye
what if you closed the other eye? would you perceive your blind spot? NO! Why?
cortical neurons responsible for the blind spot receive input from other neurons called horizontal projection neurons in the visual striate cortex which allows for PERCEPTION COMPLETION
what if these horizontal projections are not maintaining a properly Central Integrated State? anatomical blind spot plus alterations due to physiology
how do we know they are there? the blind spots can be mapped and differences in size from side to side cannot be accounted for by difference in the size of the optic disc
also, changes in the blind spot have been recorded following chiropractic adjustment blind spot mapping Dr. Frederick Carrick discovered that asymmetric alteration of the afferent input to the thalamus resulted in an asymmetrical effect on the size of the blind spot in each eye blind spot decreased on the side of increased afferent stimulus
stimulus was cervical manipulation of C2 which increased the firing of multimodal neurons in the areas of the thalamus and reticular formation that project to the visual striate cortex
this lowered the threshold for firing of neurons in the visual cortex which decreased the blind spot by lowering the threshold of the receptors around the optic disc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3IZ4-bnf_2U&v= Credits:
Beck RW. Functional Neurology for Practitioners of Manual Therapy
Carlson L. Neuron Theory and Reception Activation. Carrick Institute for Graduate Studies
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10912 clinical application injury and possible death to a neuron due to improper stimulation of that neuron by its surrounding neurons clinically... Romberg's test = patient has postural sway