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The history of technology: The computer

Science Project!
by

Murali Andoor

on 17 April 2013

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Transcript of The history of technology: The computer

Timeline The future... 1983 1993 2003 2013 LOL 0 + - = 9 8 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 c 1991 Today, there are small, not very powerful, computers in appliances, these do tasks like time the microwave and set the heat when buttons are pressed. In the future, these computers might be connected to a home wireless network or even the internet! This might enable people to do more tasks from a remote location, and this also relates to the next prediction too.

In the future, there might be "robots," not those out of science fiction stories, but robots that may be able to massage you or too do menial tasks int he household. All robots use computers like the ones in appliances.

Today, we have devices sucha s tablets and smartphones, in the future these might be integrated into glass table tops.

Future computers, as predicted by IBM might be able to give you the sense of touch, and eye movement. With newer neuroscience, your every thought might be translated into the computer.

In the future, everything might be stored on the internet, or in the "cloud," and no more hard drives will be necessary. Windows might load up from the Microsoft website every single time.

I know it might be hard to visualize, but smartphones might get even tinier and even smaller, such that they fit in your wallet. Such a small device screen might not be practical, but it might be used as a money device, passport, social security, drivers license, OHIP device etc.

There are many interesting hypothesis that many large organizations can predict, but only time will tell> The Evolution of Computers 1983-2013 The Computer The computer is an amazing device which revolutionized the way we do anything. During this time period the revolution started and gradually evolved into what we have today. 1983 Apple, one of the major personal computer manufacturers releases its Lisa computer. This computer was unique in that it has GUI, a graphical user interface, where one navigates on an image based computer using a mouse, but this was a big change from the text-based interfaces, where one had to input commands. It was truly a step into the future.

Apple also manufactured the Apple IIe, compatible with the Apple II and was another new Apple computer. IBM, arguably the biggest computer manufacturer manufactured the XT this had improved from the original PC in a number of ways. This was a big release because many computer manufacturers had copied the original PC and were looking for a new computer, and IBM was a standard in personal computers because of its place in businesses, and conseutively in the home. The Lotus 1-2-3, a spreadsheet program was introduced. This is like excel, and geared towards businesses, and was a successful spreadsheet program. Microsoft Windows was introduced, this could run on any computers running MS-DOS which was the major operating system of the time, since it ran on IBM PCs, and IBM PC compatibles. This was the predecessor to modern windows, and introduced GUI to these computers 1984 The 3.5 inch floppy drive may seem ancient now, but in 1984 it was newly introduced! It allowed for a new type of portable storage. IBM introduces the AT, with an 80286 processor
from Intel. This was another major PC release from IBM, and another one that imitators copied. IBM introduces the PC portable, a predecessor of modern laptops. This allowed businesspeople to take their work where they went, and went great with the floppy drives. 1985 The Macintosh, by Apple is releases, this is the product brand of Apples current desktop computers, and it was widely successful MS-DOS 2.0 is introduced, this runs from a text based interface, not like the computers we have today, and was a standard thanks to IBM's use of it. An important release was the Intel 80386 processor. The newest processor at that time, contained a key feature, support for 32 bit. This just means the type of software it's able to support. Though, it was also able to support previous software as well. This feature was ahead of software because the first true 32 bit operating system was releases in 1995, Windows 95. Steve Jobs quits Apple. The founder quits due to his being demoted from leader of the Macintosh division and Steve Jobs didn't like that, so he resigned, only to make more successful companies and return later. Microsoft releases Microsoft Excel, the first version of what we use today for the Apple Macintosh. This spreadsheeting program quickly grew into a successful brand to be released for Windows later. (Ironically they decided to release the program for the Mac instead of for Windows PCs) C++ a popular programming language today is released. This enabled anew type of efficient programming and because it was an extension to a previously successful programming language it was really successful as well, since it took less effort to learn, and because bits of previous programs could be used. 1986 The 1980's were full of the mixing of old and new technology. The 1980's paved the way for future technology It was a time period where the first versions of software and hardware we use today were released. It was also a time when many geniuses made their mark. Truly an innovative time period. MS-DOS 3.2, and MS-DOS 3.3 the next versions of Microsoft's then iconic software was released. The GIF image format was released, this is an image that continues to be used today. The Mac S.E. the next version of what is Apple's iconic brand is released. Steve Jobs founds Pixar, a computer animation company. 1987 IBM introduces the VGA standard for video which is the video cable they use in schools and had become a standard, though it is slowly dying out now. Modern Motherboards began to be seen, ones with a chipset. Windows 2.0 is released by Microsoft, the next release of Windows. ARM introduces it's first processor. ARM produces the plans for processors for numerous companies. Their products are now in use in such products as the Samsung galaxy series of phones, and many other phones, since it's the best one for those companies. 1988 The first network virus is created. Motorola releases the 88000 processor otherwise known as the 88k, Motorola was the company that made Apple's processors in that time period. The Intel 80386sx processor is released, which is basically just the 80386 processor, but with reduced functionality and lower cost. IBM had been the industry leader, but IBM decided to wait to release a Intel 80386 PC and so the IBM clones were growing restless, and one Compaq, took the lead and launched the Compaq Deskpro 386 and beat IBM to the market. The next major version of MS-DOS 4.0 is released by none other than Microsoft 1989 Intel releases the 486DX processor, the first processor with a built in co-processor for complex math. This was a great new processor and many computers would use it. Microsoft Office is released for again, Apple Macs, and is what we use today as word, powerpoint, excel and is an office suite. Today, it's usually used with Windows as they make a great team together. The 1990's was a time when the interfaces and frameworks, and more modern devices came out. For example laptops started to come into play, windows 95 is the same interface that even windows 7 uses, and Excel and Office look and fell like they do today. Processors began to take the shape and form of modern ones as well. 1990 The major release of this year was definetely Windows 3.0. Windows 3.0 completely redesigned Windows and although it doesn't look like modern versions it certainly was a great improvement over Windows 1.0 and 2.0. Indeed this is the first version of Windows to get real recognition. Tim Berners-Lee, the creator of the internet creates the standard that all internet websites use to transmit information to your computer and that can be decoded by your browser, albeit that nowadays, it is a revised version, though those websites should still work. This is what started a revolution, though the Internet started to be used a bit later. This changed the way people think and use computers forever. He also set up the first web server. info.cern.ch Intel releases the 80386SL processor. This was a big step because this processor was meant specifically for mobile devices such as laptops and started the mobile processor lines we have today. It had low power consumption and enabled smaller laptops. The world wide web is ready for public use.

Intel releases the 486SX computer chip but is less powerful and had less cost, which was the aim that Intel wanted here.

Microsoft previously created an operating system with IBM but decided that it didn't want to later, so it changed the name of that software OS/2 to Windows NT, and today, even Windows 8 is based on that technology. During a time period until Windows XP, there were both NT operating systems and DOS-based Windows, which used older technology. Microsoft also released MS-DOS 5.0, since Windows was still being run off of DOS.

Linux, now the 3rd major desktop operating system after Windows and MAC OSX, was created by Linus Torvalds. This was the rise of not only free, but open source software, which means anybody can write their own program using those programs. It is now a major Windows competitor.
(Interesting fact Linux's logo is a penguin!) 1992 Microsoft releases Windows 3.1 due to the success of Windows 3.0 it had even more success, and today is known as an even more successful operating system than Microsoft Windows 3.0

Intel released the 486DX2 Chip which contains a speed doubler, nowadays, processors like these appeal to gamers and are high performance.

The first media PCs are released by Radioshack, these PCs combine video, animation, graphics and audio. 1993 Windows NT 3.1, Microsoft Office 4.0 are all released in the same year. Office set the stage for the next version of office which would look like all the next ones, though it is similar to what we use now. NT 3.1 is similar to 3.1 except that it uses newer technology and is intended for businesses.


Intel releases the Pentium processor, which was a big release technically because it has 2 ALUs. which means it can process information faster, though other than that it wasn't that big of a release.



The PowerPC alliance starts to produce processors, which was IBM, Apple, and Motorola. These processors would be used in Apple computers for some time to come. 1994 Intel introduces the second generation of Pentium processors.

Yahoo is founded

Netscape is founded, a popular web browser for some time, until IE took over, and is what Firefox is based on.

Ms-DOS 6.22 is released, the last and final version of MS-DOS and what we remember as MS-DOS today. 1995 1996 Windows NT 4.0 is released by Microsoft, to be the NT co partner of Windows 95.

Google`s concept is developed

Visual Basic, a scripting language for Windows is developed by Microsoft

DDR RAM, a new faster type of computer memory is being sold. 1997 WiFi is introduced, another step forward in more laptop mobility.

Intel introduces processors that support Multimedia extensions for better performance in the media PC segment.

Facebook is live

Yahoo mail comes online

Intel Pentium 2 is released though not a major improvement.

Rewritable CDs are introduced

Office 97 is released, and is the office that looks like the ones we use today.

Mac OS 8 is released by Apple 1998 The Celeron, a low-cost version of the Pentiums start to appear

Windows 98 is released fixing many bugs that plagued Windows 95. It is way better from a technical standpoint but looks the same.

The iMac is introduced by Apple. It brought Apple into the computer business. 1999 Intel Pentium III is released, though not a big release technically.

The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is introduced by Nvidia. This is an important achievement. Better graphics are now available for gamers and graphics professionals. Nowadays, GPUs can do what CPUs can`t.

WPA encryption is now appearing on WiFi

Everyone is scared for the Y2K bug. 2000 (Y2K) The Y2K bug does not work as some people feared

Microsoft Windows ME and 2000 is released. These versions look similar to Windows 98, but these operating system is just a placeholder for Windows XP. ME is DOS based, it runs on older technology whereas 2000 is NT based.

The 1GHZ speed barrier is crossed, which many people though would never happen. This improved computers speed, and allowed greater development. An analogy is passing the sound barrier.

C# programming language is released, now many people use this language as well. It is interesting to note that Microsoft created this programming language.

USB 2.0 is released. This would be popular for many years to come. 2001 Wikipedia is founded, the world's largest online encyclopedia

Apple OS X 10.1 Puma becomes available

SATA 1.0, a standard used within computers for transfer between drives is released.

Windows XP is released, Home and Professional as well as 64 bit for Itanium processors. The start of something big. Windows XP is arguably the most successful and people used it for a long time. Now both office and home versions are run on the newer NT technology.

Xbox is released by Microsoft. These game consoles use computers inside them specifically for games. 2002 Microsoft releases DirectX 9.0 which is a graphics standard that computers use to display graphics.

Gentoo, a type of Linux for tweakers is released, and is still a popular operating system. 2003 AMD releases their Athlon 64 processor, which can support 64 bit operating systems. This was a very powerful processor for its time and was successful

Intel releases its Pentium M processor, which is a mobile processor hence the "M." This is what future desktop processors were based on and it was also very powerful for a mobile processor of its time.

iTunes is available for Windows.

Windows Server 2003, for business' servers is released and Windows XP Media center Edition is released, for a full multimedia experience.

Safari browser is released.

DDR2 RAM is available for sale with higher speeds. 2004 WPA 2, an advanced WiFi encryption so that people can't gain access to WiFi with out the correct password.

Thefacebook is released by Mark Zuckerberg. This would later become Facebook.

Apple introduces MAC OSX 10.4 Tiger

Firefox, the browser is introduced.

Windows XP Media Edition 2005 is released, for expanded multimedia capabilities. 2005 Dual core processors are released by both Intel and AMD which is essentially 2 processors in one and can compute two tasks at the same time.

Microsoft releases Windows XP x64 for x64 processors, though this did not become popular due to compatibility issues, though Windows Vista and later versions' x64 bit versions wre mre successful than the 32 bit operating systems since there were less compatibility issues and there were more processors that used it.

Xbox 360 is released. This had improved graphics and is the gaming system that we use today. 2006 Blu-ray disks are announced. These can store much more data, on both computers and disk players, and have better sound and video.

The Intel Core 2 duo processor is released and so was the Intel Core 2 Extreme. These processors from a technical standpoint was good.

Twittr is launched. No, that's not a typo, it later became Twitter.

GIF picture standard became free to use.

Internet explorer 7 is released.

The PlayStation 3 is released by sony.

Windows Vista is released, but only to corporations.

Apple starts to use Intel processors in their computers so that they are PCs in all but name. 2007 The iPhone is released by Apple. This had a powerful processor inside of it and was a powerful mobile phone.

DDR3 RAM begins to be sold this is the type of RAM that modern computers use and is very fast.

Google street view is available to view.

The Android operating system is released but today is used mainly on mobile systems and is a very popular operating system.

MAC OSX 10.5 Leopard is introduced. 2008 Intel announced Intel Atom processors for mobile devices and embedded processors, but they were never as popular as ARM in these areas, except in tiny computers.

Apple releases their newest iMac computers.

Apple also intros MAC OSX 10.6 Snow Leopard.

Intel i7 1st generation processors are released to the Public though they weren't that different from the previous processors from a technical standpoint.

Google releases Chrome browser. 2009 Internet Explorer 8 is released by Microsoft.

Minecraft is released! It is a popular game.

Windows 7 is released, as many people didn't like Vista, they though that this was Microsoft's redo of Windows Vista.

USB 3.0 is released though it didn't start becoming popular until later. 2010 The iPad is introduced. This would become a popular tablet.

The iPhone 4 is also introduced. This was successful because of the success of the previous phones.

Xbox Kinect is released. This was a step into the future with motion sensors. 2011 Internet Explorer 9 is released, but Microsoft wouldn't let anybody with Windows XP or earlier use it! Talk about cheap.

Steve Jobs dies.

The kindle fire, a successful e-reader is available for sale. It was popular because it was cheap and had a lot of books and features.




iPhone 5 is released by Apple, A little bigger screen, a little thinner, and a little lighter, all with a Maps App that doesn't work for a whole lot of money, in other words a rip-off.

The iPad Mini is also introduced by Apple, like an iPad except it is smaller.

Windows 8 is released by Microsoft but many people found it confusing and hard to use.

Internet Explorer 10 is released with a new interface for Windows 8 A big year, Windows 95 is released a big change and is the interface up until Windows 7. DOS is replaced, and now it doesn't boot up from DOS either. A start of something big

The internet goes on a boom with the release of Windows 95 and IE.

Windows NT 3.51 is released and is similar to Windows 3.1

Intel releases the Pentium Pro processor, a totally new architecture that was to be used for some time.

USB is released! 2012 The 2000's were a turbulent time, full of the technology becoming more and more user friendly, the software looking way better, the computers growing more powerful, all while they were becoming smaller. The internet really started to become a powerful force. The 2010's were a time when desktop computers started to disappear, even laptops sales started to go down. In this time period tablets and other mobile computers started to become the norm. The software started to go back in time, with more and more software and websites wanting a clean look, like Windows 8. 2013 Office 2013 is released, many people liked this version looked better and had many features going for it. Thanks for Watching!
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