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Slavery in Colonial Jamaica Anth154 Fall16

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Julie Jenkins

on 11 November 2016

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Transcript of Slavery in Colonial Jamaica Anth154 Fall16

Race & Nationalism
in Colonial Jamaica
Work all night on a drink of rum
(Daylight come and me wan' go home)
Stack banana till the mornin' come
(Daylight come and me wan' go home)

Come, Mister Tally Man, tally me banana
(Daylight come and me wan' go home)
Come, Mister Tally Man, tally me banana
(Daylight come and me wan' go home)

--1494, Christopher Columbus
--Diego Columbus 1509
--establish Spanish colony (Santiago)
Looking for gold & silver
--used indigenous population, Arawak Indians, as labor
--population of 60,000 died b/c of disease & working conditions
British- 1655
--settlers given land to cultivate sugar and cocoa
--autonomy from government-- via own Legislative Assembly
--relied on import of Africans to be used as slaves for labor
1655-1808-- 1 million Africans brought to Jamaica
--Slavery ended in 1834
--formerly enslaved served as 'apprentices' for 4-6 years
--full emancipation in 1838
-some formerly enslaved stayed working for plantation owners
-others squatted on marginal or gov. lands
-subsistence farming & local trade

--race understood as meaning that some people "were incapable of possessing mental and moral qualities necessary in his rise in the scale of true civilization"
--Social Darwinism

late 19th century- early 20th century
---sugar cultivation decreases
--American corporation starts banana production and export
--lands sold to corporation, people had to turn to wage labor in banana production/export
--emergent middle-class through clerical posts
-brought over 1st group of Africans to be used as slaves in 1517
-others settled elsewhere
--Baptist Church bought and subdivided property
--"free villages"
-19,000
-plantation owners turned to Chinese and Indian indentured servants

--marginalization of former slaves from accumulation of land, wealth, education
--political power determined by land ownership and literacy
-expansion of British colonial control
--"Right & duty" to guide formers slaves towards civilization
"whiten" black peasantry
--via middle class British values & "respectability"
discipline
temperance
work/ industry
thrift
self-help
Christian living
family structure:
--marriage
--male leadership
respect for leadership of educated middle-class
--Marcus Garvey (born 1887)
--recognized RACISM as factor in black social and economic success
--vs idea that blacks incapable of economic success b/c of biological differences

Racism:
--not just 'beliefs" or prejudice
--institutional
--distribution of power, access to wealth, opportunities, justice
"History is lived in the present" (Stolzoff)
"abandon binaries of hegemony & resistance and understand the range of contemporary cultural formations among black Jamaicans vis a vie ongoing negotiation of dynamic systems of power and domination at historically specific junctures" (Thomas 2009).
Burning Spear- Christopher Columbus

I and I old I know
I and I old I say
I and I reconsider
I and I see upfully that
Christopher Columbus is a damn, blasted liar
Christopher Columbus is a damn, blasted liar
Yes Jah

He is saying that
He's the first one
Who discovered Jamaica
I and I say that,
"What about the Arawak Indians..
and the few black man who were round here before him?"
What experiences did those ascribed with a slave status have?
"everyday forms of resistance"
-dances
-myalism
-Native Baptist
"British imperialism was not merely a system of economic exploitation and political domination, but also one of cultural control that attempted to socialize colonial populations into accepting the moral and cultural superiority of Englishness. The British colonial state..legitimated its rule by transforming space and linking hierarchies of education and status to color, class, culture & gender" (Thomas 2009)
--African/Blackness set in a lower hierarchical position in relation to Whiteness
1 rebellion every 5 years throughout the 18th century.

--Tacky Rebellion- 1760-
--Baptist War/Myalist War (Sam Sharpe) - 1831
Baptist missionary:
"I am pained, painted to the soul at being told that many of have agreed not to work any more for your owners, and I fear this is too true. I learned that some wicked person has persuaded you that the King of England has made you free..Hear me! I love your souls and I would not tell you a lie for the whole world; I assure you that it is false, false as hell can make it. I entreat you not to believe it, but go to your work as formerly. If you have any love for Jesus Christ, to religion, to your ministers or to those kind friends in England who have helped you to build this chapel, and who are sending a minister for you, do not be led away. God commands you to be obedient"
Sharpe responds:
"we have worked enough already, and will work no more; the life we live is too bad; it is the life of a dog, we won't be slaves no more, and won't lift hoe no more, we won't take flogging no more"

Do you remember the days of slav'ry?
Do you remember the days of slav'ry?

Do you remember the days of slav'ry?
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Do you remember the days of slav'ry?
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)

And how they beat us.. (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
And how they worked us so hard.
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
And how they used us.. (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Till they refuse us.. (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Do you remember the days of slav'ry?
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)

Mm.. And a big fat bull.
Mm.. We usually pull it ev'rywhere.
Mm.. We must pull it.
Mm.. With shackles around our necks.
Mm.. And I can see it all no more.
Do you remember the days of slav'ry?
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)

My brother feels it.. (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Including my sisters too.. (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Some of us survive. (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Showing them that we are still a live.
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Do you remember the days of slav'ry?
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
History can recall, history can recall.
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
History can recall the days of slav'ry.
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)

Oh slav'ry day (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)
Oh slav'ry day (do you remember the days of slav'ry?)

Cry and remember, please remember.
(Do you remember the days of slav'ry?)

Slavery Days- Burning Spear
There's a place called Africa, far, far away, woo-woo
There's a place called Africa, many miles away
Mama says that's where I'm from
And I know she can't be wrong
Take me back to Africa, Mama, how did I get here?
How did I stray? Woo-woo-woo

She said, once upon a time, my son
They stowed us on a ship
We had to work and slave each day
The boss, he took our pay
But a brighter sun has dawned today
They can't stop us, come what may
A time shall come for you and I
She bowed her head and cried, woo-woo
Mama, please don't cry


(..)

There's a place called Africa, far, far away, woo-woo
There's a place called Africa, many miles away
A brighter sun has dawned today
They can't stop us, come what may
A time shall come for you and I
She bowed her head and cried, woo-woo
Mama, please don't cry

There's a place called Africa, far, far away
There's a place called Africa, many miles away
Junior Byles- A Place Called Africa
Morant Bay Rebellion- 1865- Paul Bogle
-vision of black owned business
"wealth is strength, wealth is power, wealth is influence, wealth is justice, is liberty, is real human rights. The system of our world politics suggests such as a fact it is...it is the accumulated wealth of the Blacks that will force him to the front and compel men and nations to think of him in terms of economic justice. All this is achievable through a greater economic expansion"
-examine the way people give meaning to experiences of social, racial, and economic inequality
--by exploring Rastafarianism, Reggae, & Dancehall

-examine the social & economic context that produced Rastafarianism, its central ideas and practices
-including how Jamaica has been historically positioned within processes of globalization
-examine the role of Rastafarianism, Reggae, and Dancehall in changing political & economic situations in Jamaica

The Indians couldn't hang on no longer
Here comes black man and woman and children
Inna Jamdown lan' ya
Whole heap o' mix-up, mix-up
A whole heap o' ben' up, ben' up
It haffe straighten out

Christopher Columbus is a damn, blasted liar
Christopher Columbus is a damn, blasted liar
Yes Jah
Why might dance, music, and religion be important in the context of enslavement?
Old pirates, yes, they rob I;
Sold I to the merchant ships,
Minutes after they took I
From the bottomless pit.
But my hand was made strong
By the 'and of the Almighty.
We forward in this generation
Triumphantly.
Won't you help to sing
These songs of freedom? -
'Cause all I ever have:
Redemption songs;
Redemption songs.

Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery;
None but ourselves can free our minds.
Have no fear for atomic energy,
'Cause none of them can stop the time.
How long shall they kill our prophets,
While we stand aside and look? Ooh!
Some say it's just a part of it:
We've got to fulfil de book.
Bob Marley
Redemption Song

competing interpretations of race & nationalism
1. rule by locally-born White-Jamaicans
2. White Jamaicans and African Jamaicans had the same opportunities
Religion, Power, & Inequality
What do we mean by "politics"?
cultural ideas, norms, values, & practices that regulate how people interact with one another
consists of mechanisms of social control--
way of getting group members to conform to expectations and rules
internalized control
externalized control
formal sanctions
informal sanctions
Who is able to define expectations and rules? Who has social power?
Power:
ability to compel others to do things
ability to have one's interpretations transmitted
individual
organizational
coercive
What is inequality?
Inequality- degree to which culturally valued material and social rewards are given disproportionately to individuals, families, groups.
Unequal access to wealth, prestige, & power
Unequal access to productive resources, education, or skills
Are these distributed based on one's acribed or achieved status?
Native Baptism
-George Liele

-Ethiopianism
Full transcript