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Imperialism and causes of the WW1
Transcript of Imperialism and causes of the WW1
Imperialism emerged basically from Western Europe, the United States and Japan. 1870-1914. There are two perspectives on imperialism:
MARXIST. Imperialism is a consequence of capitalism.
LIBERALIST. Imperialism is a consequence of absolutism.
does it make sense to you? CAUSES
Expansionist policy: Nationalism.
A nation is no powerful if it does not possess colonies.
Search for new markets, raw material, cheap labor, land and jobs for european migrants.
New activities to invest excedent capital.
To civilize the world.
Imperialism created an unequal exchange between metropolis and colonies. Industrialized countries, possessing the means of production imposed to colonized countries conditions of production and trade.
Metropolis invested in infrastructure in order to be able to exploit natural resources.
They solved most of excessive population issues because they needed soldiers, labour and managers. Native workers (from the colonies) received less salaries.
They exported consumer good to the same places that provided the raw materials to produce them. Development of monopolist capitalism: hegemony or prevalecence of industrial powers. On one side there are great powers or metropolis and on the other side there are poor underdeveloped economies. CONSEQUENCES FOR COLONIES.
Interior: Cities, growth, communication channels.
Market economy SIDE BY SIDE to subsistance economy.
Governments based on the colonizers.
Social structure: foreign bourgeoisie / native proletariat
Literacy. Cultural identity?
Ethnic problems. Frontiers or boundaries that existed before colonizing were not respected. CONSEQUENCES BRITISH EMPIRE Although neocolonial expansion of Great Britain started by the first half of the 19th century looking for markets in South America, India and China. It was from 1850 to 1914 when it occupied a predominant place between world powers. It once got as part of its empire one fourth of world population. The Victorian period (Victoria I 1837-1901) was particularly interesting. There were two types of territories. Dominion and exploitation. The first ones were for British to migrate and live there. They were very autonomous and had very similar governments than England.
Exploitation territories were producers of raw material and had none political autonomy. They were submitted under the control of a governor who represented the British queen. Escalas marítimas: Malta, Corfú y las islas Jónicas en el Mediterraneo; Gibraltar, Santa Elena, El Cabo, Isla Mauricio, Adén, Ceilán, en la ruta de las Indias; Singapur y Hong Kong en la ruta de China.
Colonias de plantación en América: Suministraban productos tropicales: Antillas, Honduras, Guayana.
Colonias de poblamiento europeo: Canadá, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, África del Sur.
Colonias de explotación: India y casi todo África. http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/maproom.htm What were the characteristics of Europe by the end of the 19th century? Great Britan controlled the seas, watched out for european equlibrium and was trying to stop other world powers to emerge. It followed the Two Power Standard: The british navy had to be equal to the sum of the two stronger navies of the world (after GB) in that moment those were France and Russia.
Russia, with lots but unproductive lands (Siberia) wanted to obtain more land by the Black Sea, so it was involved in problems at the Balcans.
Germany had Bismarck as the "coordinator" of Europe. International relations were defined by Bismarckian system.
Austria-Hungary had become a dual monarchy and it was resented to Germany. It was looking to increase its territory on the South (competing with Russia). Bismarckian systems constituted a set of alliances and treaties aiming to preserve equilibrium in Europe.
There are three stages on this system:
System of the three emperors (1873.1878) Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary.
Second system (1879-1882)
Austrian-German treaty 1879
Triple Alliance: Austria, Germany and Italy: It commited the three countries to help each other if one were attacked and to remain neutral if one of them attacked a fourth nation. (Notice that they are trying to isolate France. Great Britain did not accept....)
Third system (1887-1890)
Rennovation of the Triple Alliance.
Treaty of the Reinsurance: It guaranteed Russian neutrality in case of a French atttack towards Germany.
Russia hesitated and signed a treaty with France....
England and France signed another alliance...(they were both concerned about Germany)
In 1905 Russia joins that treaty... then France, Great Britain and Russia formed: the
So there are two alliances:
TRIPLE ENTENTE: FER TRIPLE ALLIANCE: GA-HI ALLIANCES industrialization alliances militarism: The system of alliances allowed Europe to live a relatively long peaceful period. Since 1871 (the Franco-Prussian war, great power had avoided conflict. Meanwhile, they were all developing their military industry. This contradictory situation between 1871 and 1914 is known as "paz armada". NATIONALISM Grat powers had technological advances and this advance supported the development of capitalism... national pride emerged... rivalries... sense of superiority....Which ideology would you recall now besides nationalism? Propaganda Austria-Hungary administrated the territories of Bosnia-Herzegovina since 1878.
En 1908 Austria Hungary took property of those territories.
Serbia asked Russia for help... Russia did not respond.
Serbia asked France for help....France did not respond.
Serbia asked Great Britain for help... GB offered diplomatic support.
Serbia had to accept the incorporation of Bosnia-Herzegovina to the Austro Hungarian empire.
As a consequence, nationalist secret societies were formed. They wanted to get rid of the Habsburgo´s domination. They wanted to unify Slavic population. June 28,1914 in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia.
Austro Hungarian heir to the throne: Archduke Franz Ferndinand of Austria visited Sarajevo.
Both the archduke and his wife were assassinated. Austro-Hungarian government made Serbian government responsible and sent and ultimatum demanding it to control their nationalists groups and to punish the agressors. The AH gov. also asked to allow them to participate in this process.
The ultimatum was not fulfilled. .Great Britain proposed a peaceful solution.
Germany intervened and refused to that option.
Julio 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war to Serbia.
Russia movilized its army against Austria Hungary but it does not attack, it just demanded to Austria to withdraw the ultimatum.
Great Britain intervened again requesting an agreement but the proposal is denied.
On July 30th Russia delcared war to Germany and to Austria Hungary.
On August 1st, Germany declared war to Russia.
On August 3rd, Germany declared war to France.
August 4th, Germany attacked France through Belgium.
Great Britain declared war to Germany for not respecting Belgium neutrality.