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Transcript of Greek Mythology
The Very Beginning
In the very beginning Chaos was the first primeval goddess. Some of the next primeval gods/goddesses were Gaia (Earth), Uranus (Sky), Tartaros (Underworld), Pontos (Water), Thesis (Creation), Phusis (Nature), and Eros (Love). Chaos was the mother of the air primeval gods: Nyx, Erebos, Hemera, and Aither. In this order those four air gods/goddesses are night, darkness, day, and light.
After all the primeval gods and goddesses were born, Gaia and Uranus gave birth to the Hecatonchires, the Cyclopes, and the Titans. The first two groups of children scared Uranus, so he sent them to live inside Tartarus, the god of the underworld. This made Gaia angry, so she gave the Titans a scythe to slay Uranus. Only the youngest Titan, Kronos, obeyed her. He took the scythe and killed Uranus, who's blood scattered everywhere. Uranus' blood created the Giants, a goddess called Aphrodite, a terrible monster called Typhoon, and a group of nymphs called the Meliae.
Greek mythology was created by the Ancient Greeks to explain everything from storms to love. There were titans, gods, goddesses, heroes, monsters, and many more!
There are more primeval gods and goddesses but I only listed a few.
The First Gods/Goddesses
The first Olympians were Kronos' children: Hestia, Hera, Demeter, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. The three sons (Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus) divided the world into realms. Hades got the underworld and Poseidon got the sea. Zeus got the sky and everything else, so he was named the King of Olympus. He married his sister Hera, who became the Queen of Olympus. Hestia became the goddess of the hearth and home, and Demeter became the goddess of agriculture.
Kronos was the youngest of the Titans (Oceanus, Coeus, Krios, Hyperion, Iapetus, Thea, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Tethys, Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, Metis, Dione, and Kronos). When his mother, Gaia, offered a scythe to them, he was the only one who took it. He killed his father Uranus, then married his sister, Rhea. They gave birth to six children: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. (In that order). Gaia prophesied that one day, one of Kronos' children would overthrow him, as Kronos had done to his father. To prevent this, Kronos swallowed each of his children once they were born. Rhea did not like this, so when Zeus was born, she hid Zeus and gave Kronos a rock wrapped in a blanket, which he swallowed. Later, when Zeus was older, he came back and released his siblings from Kronos' stomach, which started the Titan War.
Demeter is the goddess of agricuture, grain, fertility, and good harvest. Her only daughter is Persephone, goddess of flowers. Once, Hades was looking for a wife. He saw Persephone, kidnapped her, and took her to the underworld as his queen. Demeter was angry so Zeus made a deal, Demeter has Persephone for half of the year, and Hades the other half. The 6 months that Hades has Persephone, Demeter is missing Persephone and doesn't care for the land. This is Autumn and Winter. When Demeter has Persephone for 6 months, it is Spring and Summer. This is the story of Persephone, Hades, and Demeter.
Hestia was the goddess of the hearth and home. She was the first Olympian. Also, she was the wisest and the most peaceful of all the gods and goddesses. This is why she is the goddess who keeps people warm and safe.
Hera is the goddess of women and marriage. Her sacred animal is the peacock and she is the wife of Zeus. Zeus always falls in love with other women, which makes Hera jealous. He is the king of Olympus, which makes Hera the queen of Olympus.
The Titan War
The Titan War was the war between the first Olympians and the Titans. This very bloody war lasted a hundred years. The Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires sided with the Olympians, so they had the help of powerful beings. But the terrible monster, Typhoon, sided with the Titans. The Giants sided with the Titans too. Since the Cyclopes were blacksmiths, the three sons (Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades) got powerful weapons. Zeus got a lightning bolt that can summon lightning, Poseidon got a trident that controls the sea, and Hades got a helmet of invisibility that allowed him to sneak around enemies and attack them in the back. These weapons helped them very much against their enemies. First, they defeated the Titans. Then the Giants were defeated next, with the help of mortal heroes, also known as demigods. They sent the Giants and the Titans into Tartarus. But not before Zeus cut Kronos into a million pieces, like Kronos did to Uranus. Finally, Zeus trapped Typhoon under a mountain. This is how the Olympians came to rule the world.
Ancient Greek Bust
Ancient Greek Coin
More Ancient Greek Money
The Twelve Olympians
The Twelve Olympians were Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter, Aphrodite, Athena, Ares, Hephaestus, Artemis, Apollo, Hermes, and Dionysus.Hades and Hestia aren't Olympians. Hades isn't because he doesn't live on Olympus. Hestia isn't because she wanted to prevent a family fued, so she gave up her seat for Dionysus.
The Twelve Olympians
These are the Olympians. Hestia is in the center, tending the hearth while the Olympians sit on their thrones.
Aphrodite is the goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and happiness. Her symbols are the dove, a seashell, and an apple. She was forced to marry Hephaestus, but she loved Ares. Hephaestus found out and got jealous. He made a trap in the place where Ares and Aphrodite liked to meet. The next time that they went there, they got trapped in a net for all to see and laugh at.
Athena is the goddess of wisdom, war, and crafts. Her mother was Metis, but Zeus heard that one day his child would overthrow him. This worried Zeus, so he swallowed Metis when she became pregnant. Athena was born in his head and she grew up in his head. When she was older, she took a shield and banged it until Zeus got a huge headache. He made Hephaestus crack open his head, and Athena sprang out, fully grown and dressed in armor. Her symbol is an olive branch and an owl.
Hephaestus is the god of forgery and blacksmiths. His wife is Aphrodite, but she hates him. His symbol is the anvil.
Ares is the god of war and is the son of Zeus and Hera. He loves Aphrodite. Ares and Hephaestus despise each other. He and Aphrodite had three children together. The children were Harmonia, Deimos, and Phobus. Ares' symbols are the spear, the boar, and the vulture.
Giants can only be defeated by a mortal (or demigod) and a god. Because of this, every Giant who is being fought should only be challenged by a god if a mortal/demigod is there. I REPEAT, DO NOT FIGHT A GIANT IF YOU AREN'T WITH A GOD OR GODDESS.
Hermes is the messenger god. He is also the god of thievery, travel, trade, and trickery. He helps dead souls travel to the River Styx. His symbols are his winged shoes and his messenger hat.
Artemis is the goddess of wildlife and the hunt. She is a maiden goddess, which means she will never marry. Her twin brother is Apollo. Her symbol is the bow and arrow and her sacred animal is the golden deer.
Apollo is the god of archery, poetry, healing, and music. His twin sister is Artemis, goddess of the hunt. Apollo's symbol is the lyre.
Dionysus is the god of wine, drunkenness and pleasure. His symbols are the thyrsos, the flute, grapes, and the wine barrels. His sacred animals are the tiger and the panther.
The Big Three
There are lots of minor gods in greek mythology, but some of the more well known minor gods are Hecate, Hypnos, Morpheus, Persephone, Hebe, Priapos, Iris, Pan, and Thanatos.
Hecate is the goddess of magic. She is also the goddess of crossroads and witchcraft. She is depicted with two torches , one in each hand. Her sacred animals are a black female dog and a polecat.
Hypnos is the god of sleep. His symbols are
a branch dripping with water from the River
Lethe and an inverted torch. Another of his symbols was a poppy-stem. His twin brother was
Thanatos. He was usually depicted as a young man
Morpheus was the son of Hypnos, the god of sleep. He himself was the god of dreams. Morpheus was the leader of the Oneiroi. The Oneiroi were spirits of dreams.