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Nanotechnology - Science Update for Teachers
Transcript of Nanotechnology - Science Update for Teachers
http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/nanotechnology Specifications Nice Nanovids Classroom Resources Teachers pack for the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures 2010 - Size Matters (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/teachers/christmaslectures/ How small are we talking? http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/scale/ 1nm = one billionth of a metre /one millionth of a millimetre
One thousand millionth
0.000000001m Click the link below to see an interactive scale from coffee beans down to carbon atoms Q: Why can geckos walk up walls? A: Teeny tiny hairs on the soles of their feet interact with hydrophobic surfaces and keep them stuck on Researchers at the University of Akron put little harnesses on geckos then pulled them across different surfaces to see how well they stuck Moving carbon nanotubes from one surface to another - nano circuits in electronics What fun research is there? Why is this useful? More information:
http://tinyurl.com/bwwexge Underwater adhesives Nano News Sites dedicated to current developments in nanotechnology Nanotechnology
http://www.nature.com/nnano/index.html Journals Popular Science Institute of Nanotechnology
United States National Nanotechnology Initiative http://www.nano.gov Nanoparticles A much higher surface area : volume ratio in nanoparticles than larger particles of the same material means VERY different properties Nanotechnology: Bionanotechnology: 7 min What is Nanotechnology? 15 min AS / A Level
Chemistry Key Stage 4 OCR AQA WJEC WJEC L1/2 Certificate Chemistry L1/2 Certificate
Science: Double Award GCSE Chemistry
GCSE Additional Science 21st Century Science
Chemistry A GCSE 21st Century Science
Biology A GCSE Gateway Science
Additional Science B
Chemistry B Carbon Central Diamond Graphite Fullerenes Carbon nanotubes Allotropes: different physical forms of an element Graphene Tetrahedral lattice structure Each atom forms 4 bonds Very poor electrical conductor (no free electrons) Excellent thermal conductor (rigid lattice passes on atomic vibrations very well)
Insoluble in water Naturally occurring but can be made synthetically Hardest structure known (strong bonds in three dimensions) More information on diamonds and their structure: Nanodiamonds as chemotherapy aid: http://tinyurl.com/45gnsxx Natural History Museum: http://tinyurl.com/bvb48sz Stephen Dutch's diamond structure page: http://tinyurl.com/bohann3 High melting point - 3550 celsius (very strong covalent carbon-carbon bonds need a lot of energy to be broken) Uses: jewellery, cutting tools Uses: pencil 'lead', dry lubricants, electrodes Stacked sheets of graphene
Each atom forms 3 bonds
The fourth electron is delocalised between the layers / sheets forming a 'sea' of electrons
Excellent conductor of electricity and heat (free electrons)
Layers separate easily (weak bonds between layers, strong bonds within layers)
High melting point (strong covalent bonds within layers)
Insoluble in water http://tinyurl.com/cswcpmc http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/structures/giantcov.html http://craigbanksresearch.com/page3.html Two-dimensional sheet
Honeycomb lattice structure
Each carbon is covalently bonded to three others
One atom thick
Conducts electricity (free electrons) Uses: touch screens in mobile devices, making graphite, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes Uses: semiconductors in electronic circuits, reinforcing materials (mainly polymers, eg tennis racquets and other sports equipment), platforms for catalysts Sheets of graphene rolled into hollow cylinders - either single-walled or multi-walled (concentric cylinders inside one another)
Tubes naturally line up to form rope-like structures
Three times as strong as steel but only 1/4 of the density
Allow much bigger surface area for catalysts to come into contact with reactants in industrial processes http://coecs.ou.edu/Brian.P.Grady/nanotube.html 10 uses for nanotubes: http://tinyurl.com/bm9c2my Buckminster Fullerene - 60 atoms of carbon arranged like a soccer ball
Each molecule is around 1nm in diameter
In large numbers they form fullerite, a transparent yellow solid
Other fullerenes with different numbers of carbon atoms in them have also been successfully synthesised
They are 'caged' molecules that can be soluble in water, so have many potential uses in the treatment of disease
They can act like ball bearings
- so could be useful lubricants http://tinyurl.com/cpvdpmf Uses: catalysts, lubricants, drug delivery Wellcome Trust Big Picture on NanoScience, June 2005:
Associated online resources: http://tinyurl.com/cyt3onj Nature's Nanoparticle Production Sea spray Particulates (e.g. carbon / soot) from combustion or volcanic ash Clouds Clay Science Museum resources: http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/antenna/nano/ Atmospheric chemical reactions Nanotechnology for students: 5 min BioNano Sizes A water molecule is around 2.75 angstroms in diameter (0.275nm) 1nm is 10 angstroms (you might come across this when looking at molecule sizes!) Water Structure and Science: http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/molecule.htm Thickness of a phospholipid bilayer is around 3 to 5nm
Diameter of an acetylcholine receptor is around 9nm
Distance across a synapse is around 20 - 40nm Brain Nanochemistry: Building Blocks of Biology Simple structures (monomers) join up to make complex structures (polymers)
Many molecules self-assemble - lipid bilayers, microtubules
This could be the basis of novel drug delivery and action Nanodevices At A Glance Nanoshells Nanopores Tiny holes in thin membranes, like molecular sieves - can be used for detecting different molecules and ions Dendrimers The Nanopore Site: http://www.thenanoporesite.com/index.html Highly branched, star shaped molecules - can be used for drug delivery, gene transfection, energy harvesting Nanotubes Sigma Aldrich - Dendrimers:
http://tinyurl.com/d4nrho3 Tiny tubes - can be used for drug delivery, making electrodes, as part of solar cells and batteries, catalysts in fuel cells, artificial muscles, incinerating cancerous tumours , detecting cancer-specific proteins, cleaning up oil spills, nanotube transistors in electronic circuits, nanomotors... Understanding Nano - uses of nanotubes:
http://tinyurl.com/y8ooro2 Nancotechnologies - Quantum Dots:
http://tinyurl.com/cjby3ej Quantum dots Nanoparticles of a semiconductor which emit different colour light according to the dot size - can be used for LED lighting, displays, solar cells, medical imaging, disease detection US National Cancer Institute - Nanoshells:
http://tinyurl.com/ckw4el8 Spheres with a core of silica and metallic outer shell - can be used for selective destruction of tumour cells Nanomotors on the BBC: http://tinyurl.com/cvkw2ht Ethics of Nanotechnology: http://tinyurl.com/cmf64tn Smart Nano Smart materials: those that change in a controlled way under external influences (e.g. temperature, pressure, magnetic fields). Includes those that revert to a particular shape (shape memory materials) - for example, if they are heated Where could nanotechnology be involved?
smart materials responding to injuries
prosthetic limbs and implants that 'fit' better
detecting and neutralising toxins
changing clothing according to surroundings - camouflage
Smartdust - nanosensors that could float around, building up information about the environment within buildings Information selected from: http://www.azonano.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=1877 NanoEthics Center for Responsible Nanotechnology: http://crnano.org/index.html The Nanoethics Group: http://ethics.calpoly.edu/nanoethics/bigdeal.html More info on memory metals: http://tinyurl.com/cbdyxkm What kind of world do we wish to inhabit and leave for following generations? Our planet is in trouble if current trends continue into the future: environmental degradation, extinction of species, rampant diseases, chronic warfare, poverty, starvation and social injustice. Particles v Nanoparticles Silver - Antimicrobial properties, used in some clothing, surface coatings NanoTechWire
http://tinyurl.com/62x4jo Particles: affected by chlorides and other chemicals
Nanoparticles: unaffected by chlorides and other chemicals Titanium oxide - blocks UV light, used in sunscreen Particles: white
Nanoparticles: transparent Silica coated with copper - antibacterial, neutralises odours, used in deodorant Particles: small surface area
Nanoparticles: very large surface area European Commission Report on Nanoparticles - link to uses
in the Food Industry Nanocomposites could be put onto the surfaces of food packaging that are antimicrobial and alter the gas permeability of the packaging according to the requirements of different food products Nanoparticles could be used to enhance the appearance of food, to detect biological or chemical contamination or to alter how the body processes the food Foods Packaging Food Standards Agency Information: http://tinyurl.com/cttnmaz NB Boron nitride can form allotropes with similar structures to graphite and diamond http://www.understandingnano.com/graphene-applications.html Future applications: http://www.graphene.manchester.ac.uk/future/ Graphene Graphite Diamond Carbon Nanotubes Fullerenes Nokia Nanotech : 5 min A result of man-made industrial processes,
incidental nanoparticles include:
Metal on metal (MOM) hip replacement implants
Known health impacts from incidental nanoparticles:
Cooking smoke may cause pneumonia, chronic respiratory disease and even lung cancer.
Diesel exhaust may cause cancer and respiratory disease.
Welding fumes may cause metal fume fever; infertility; benign pneumoconiosis.
Industrial emissions/effluents may cause asthma, atherosclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Sandblasting may cause silicosis.
Genotoxic cobalt ions from MOM hip replacement implants cause patients chronic inflammation and loss of mobility (7,500 UK patients have had their implants removed and replaced since 2010) The Downside of Nano Adapted from:
http://tinyurl.com/d7j82yt (The University of North Texas Risk Management Services) http://tinyurl.com/c5ast2p (Imperial College London News) (US) National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, Nanotechnology lesson plans and resources for all ages: http://tinyurl.com/btgkdg6 Are suffering and despair humanity's fate? Not necessarily. We have within our grasp the technology to help bring about great progress in elevating humanity. Or we can use our evolving knowledge for destructive ends. We are already immersed in fiery debates on genetic engineering, cloning, nuclear physics and the science of warfare. Nanotechnology, with its staggering implications, will create a whole new set of ethical quandaries. A strong set of operating principles is needed -- standards by which we can guide ourselves to a healthier destiny. Taken from: http://www.nanotech-now.com/ethics-of-nanotechnology.htm Dr Wuge Briscoe is a Nanoscientist working on interactions at bio- and nano-interfaces. He is currently a Senior Lecturer in Physical Chemistry at the University of Bristol School of Chemistry but his career has so far found him in Australia, Oxford University and Sweden So, do you fancy a career that is varied, interesting and challenging, with the potential for international travel? Read on... What do you enjoy most about what you do?
The intellectual freedom to pursue scientific problems that I find interesting, challenging and relevant to society.
What do you enjoy least?
Increasing amounts of paperwork and admin tasks, and constant struggle to apply for funding to do 1) above.
What do you do in an average day?
There really isn't an average day. During university term time, I have to lecture, give tutorials and workshops. Now it is out of term, for example, I was in Budapest for 4 days for a management meeting for an EU project and lecturing a cohort of Marie Curie PhD fellows. Then I am back in Bristol for paper writing, postgrad supervision, receiving an Australia visitor, preparing for an X-ray experiment, designing a little device for another experiment, spending time with students in the lab, and various meetings. I will be in France next week for an x-ray experiment, before another two weeks in Italy for another experiment.
What would be the best/most exciting/worthwhile thing you can imagine yourself achieving?
Doing my next experiment with all the thoroughness and rigour I think I should apply to it.
If students are interested in getting into the kind of research that you do, what would be the best way for them to get some experience of it?
We from time to time receive visits from interested students, and can also offer summer scholarships on suitable projects so students could have a flavour of what we do. For more information on See http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/briscoe-group/Research.html