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Organic Molecules of Life

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Angie Dobberfuhl

on 11 September 2012

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Transcript of Organic Molecules of Life

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Types of carbohydrates Disaccharides Polysaccharides Simplest sugars sugars sugar polymers Primary Energy source Intermediate Energy storage Structural molecule of plants Chains of sugars Monosaccharides Primary energy source Glucose Fructose Two simple sugars bonded together Used to transport sugars esp in plants and insects To use them for energy the bond between the sugars must be broken Sucrose Lactose aka Complex carbohydrates! http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001321/ http://www.livestrong.com/article/323497-intolerance-to-sucrose/ Table sugar Milk sugar Missing sucrase-sucrose intolerance Missing lactase-lactose intolerance MANY monosaccharides bonded together Used for intermediate storage can be broken down into monosaccharides Can also be used as structural components of cell walls Starch and Glycogen Cellulose and Chitin Starch Cellulose Definition of carbohydrates Functions of carbohydrates Definition of lipids Function of lipids Types of lipids Functions of proteins Definition of proteins Types of proteins Definition of Nucleic acids Function of Nucleic acids Types of Nucleic acids great amount of energy contained in them about twice that of carbohydrates Lipids are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms
often found in long chains. All hydrophobic (water-fearing) make up many structural components of cells meant to keep molecules dissolved in water out long-term energy storage Fats Cholesterols Triglycerides glycerol fatty acids Fatty acids Glycerol (phospholipids) saturated unsaturated saturated unsaturated from diet and for storage and energy use solid at room temperature liquid at room temperature Cholesterol Steroids from diet and made from triglycerides for structure in membranes and steroid formation too much can cause atheroschlerosis too much can cause atheroschlerosis can reduce atheroschlerosis risk HDL LDL can reduce atheroschlerosis risk made from cholesterols hormones communication between cells in the body http://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/anabolic-steroids.htm addison's disease androgens estrogens corticosteroids autoimmune disease treatment hydrocortisone, prednisone cortisol http://content.usatoday.com/communities/greenhouse/post/2010/12/pill-estrogen-drinking-water/1 http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&rlz=1T4RNRN_enUS444US445&biw=970&bih=633&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=397AeNwXsQtzuM:&imgrefurl=http://www.zjpharma.cn/e/hyd1.htm&imgurl=http://www.zjpharma.cn/image/Hydrocortisone_Cream1.jpg&w=461&h=294&ei=QLNIUM2CIIqe8QSn84HQBQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=248&sig=109488013900680652073&page=1&tbnh=133&tbnw=208&start=0&ndsp=8&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0,i:170&tx=118&ty=102 http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hbc/ saturated fats trans fats LDL cholesterol unsaturated fats HDL Cholesterol Steroids Most abundant organic molecule in animals Structural molecules (in cell membranes) Enzymes help organisms carry out chemical reactions nom nom lactose lactase protein Made of long strings of amino acids http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein Strings of amino acids fold to make functional proteins http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein Folding of proteins What is the primary use of carbohydrates? Is that the only way carbohydrates are used?

What might happen if you ate an extremely low fat or no fat diet exclusively? Would there be adverse effects? What might they be?

If you were diagnosed with lupus (an autoimmune disease) what type of molecule might the doctor prescribe to help you deal with the symptoms?

Some amino acids are only available in the diet. If your diet was deficient in one of these, what problem(s) might you have?

Do all proteins have primary structures? Secondary? Tertiary? Quaternary?

What are some differences between RNA and DNA? Are there any reasons for these differences?

What would happen if your ATP couldn't lose the third phosphate molecule? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1GZX_Haemoglobin.png http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin Insulin-with zinc Hemoglobin-with iron Myoglobin-with Iron http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0020855.html http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactase lactase molecules made of 3 basic components Monosaccharide sugar Phosphate group Nitrogenous base Heredity Protein formation Energy for cells DNA RNA ATP Heredity Protein formation Energy for cells BASE BASE deoxyribose sugar ribose sugar phosphate
group phosphate
group adenine thymine guanine cytosine
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