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THE BIOMECHANCIS OF HIGH JUMP
Transcript of THE BIOMECHANCIS OF HIGH JUMP
The study of an extensive range of mechanical laws and how they each indicidually relate to the biological structure and funtion of living organisms.
• Investigates both internal and external factors that influence the body.
• Can be further defined into the 7 biomechanical principles.
• Used by coaches for the following three reasons.
Biomechanics allows coaches to refine and perfect the technique of their athletes, subsequently enhancing their performance.
Without sufficiant biomechanical knowledge, athletes can often be put at a much more serious risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries.
Biomechanical knowledge is also used for the development of new and improved sporting equipment to allow athletes to maximise their performance.
Newtons Third Law
Referred to as the law of "Action & Reaction" or "Cause & Effect"
States that for every action, there is a reaction force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
Influenced elasticity and friction.
The Approach Phase
The first 8-12 strides of an athletes run up.
Allows the athlete to build as much momentum and power as they can before transitioning into the take-of stage.
Can be further divided into two sub-sections, linear and curvilinear.
The Linear Stage
The Curvilinear Stage
Encompasses the first 7-8 strides of the approach phase
Athletes should progressively develop a controlled pace, and then transition into long, bouncy strides.
This is accomplished by manipulating action and reaction.
This stage encompasses the final 4-5 steps of an athletes run up which follow a curved path.
This curve causes athletes to tilt to the side while running and develop centrifugal force.
Centrifugal force can be described as the force that causes rotating objects to move away from their centre of rotation.
The Take-Off Phase
The Initial Contact Stage
The Departure Stage
The Bar Clearance Phase
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• Introduced as an Olympic sport during the first official Summer Olympic games at Athens in 1896.
• Previous techniques used include the scissors technique, the western roll technique and the straddle technique.
• "Fosbury Flop" pioneered by Richard Fosbury in 1968.
The actions and motions of the jumper's body during the period in which their take-off foot is in contact with the ground.
Used to transform the jumper's velocity from horizontal to vertical.
Major stages of the take-off include the initial contact stage and the departure stage.
The first contact of the athlete's foot on the ground.
Apply significant force to the ground to get a large reaction force in return.
Athletes also choose to wear specialized high jump shoes to increase the friction between their foot and the ground, subsequently emphasizing the action and reaction process.
Germaine Mason - Good Example
Unknown Jumper - Bad Example
Encompasses the technical aspects and biomechanics that an athlete is required to implement as they transition into the bar clearance stage
Involves the knee drive, which is used by athletes to supply additional momentum and lift from the ground, and transformation of centrifugal force to upward velocity.
The period after which the athletes take-off foot leaves the ground.
During this phase, athletes are required to perform a series of sequential movements in order for each part of their body to progressively clear the bar.
Initiate and arch in the spine by tilting their head backwards.
This arch allows the athlete's upper back to pass unhindered over the bar.
The athlete should then elevate their hips and flick their feet, allowing the rest of their body to clear the bar.
Indirect Action and Reaction
Allows high jumpers to elevate one part of their body by lowering another.
This phenomenon is emphasized by the extreme flexibility of modern high jumpers.
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